2015/10/30

«In an age of "over-testing," we all need R.E.S.T. instead»



Lu Hanessian, CHL. Courier-Post



«For educators, parents and children, the restoration of true learning, creativity, unbridled curiosity, simple common sense, thriving classrooms, and play, cannot come soon enough.

»The most recent development on the federal policy front is that the administration called for a "cap on assessment" so that no child would spend more than 2 percent of classroom instruction time taking tests. Officials are working on reauthorizing federal legislation governing the nation’s public elementary and secondary schools. Congress is being called on to “reduce over-testing."

»Reduce over-testing sounds like turning down the volume or lowering the thermostat in the house. As if it were one gesture.

»Twenty years of pushing a massive boulder uphill, in the name of improving American children's math skills ("scores"), in order to compete with countries like Singapore (#1), Netherlands (#9), and Canada (#13), and science, to at least be on par with countries like Hong Kong (#1), Japan (#3)...Finland (#4).

»The U.S. ranks #24 and #25. Does this keep you up at night? Me neither.

»Education has become a needless Sisyphean task. And the results of this sweat equity is not one nudge on competitive test scores. Learning is not a competition.

»No Child Left Behind. Has there ever been such a bitterly ironic name for anything?

»Parents, teachers and unions have shared their voices. They may be protesting, but they are not pro-testing. They are against teaching to tests, against spending all their class time preparing kids to take tests, managing test anxiety, bypassing student interests, natural inquiry, discovery and social emotional learning in favor of pushing the boulder up the hill.

»What is so disturbing to us as educators, parents, caregivers and people who work hard to keep the light on in our children...is that our nation's children have been suffering the fallout of programs that don't support their developing brains, nervous systems, health, emotional and psychological wellbeing.

»When you tell children they will be tested and timed, their creative brain shuts off, their pre-frontal cortex, the part of their brain involved in higher thinking, goes dark.

»When children are not engaged in what they're learning, they don't remember it.

»When children are not able to follow their curiosity in the classroom, they get restless.

»When they are restless, they move around, talk, can't focus or stay attentive.

»When kids can't focus and stay attentive, we think they have an attention problem.

»When kids lose attention, they are pressured to get with the program and warned they'll fail.

»When they are pressured and warned they'll fail, they get stressed or they get depressed.

»When children are stressed, their amygdala fires up, their flight, flight, freeze responses kick in. Cortisol increases. They go into survival mode. Not learning mode.

»When kids, especially from just before middle school and then throughout adolescence to age 24, are chronically stressed, depressed, and lack sleep due to excessive homework, testing anxiety, parental stress and pressure to keep up, compounded by social conflicts, low self-worth, bullying, and feelings of isolation, they are more at risk of turning to substances and other means, for escape, acceptance or numbing, and often feel trapped in circumstances they cannot alter.

»When kids feel despondent, they are more prone to addiction, and can make impulsive decisions that can be fatal.

»When kids don't sleep at least 8 hours a night, their bodies begin re-writing genes.

»When teens and adults get less then 7 hours a night for 7 days, it changes up to 700 genes.

»When genes change, disease markers can be switched on either in childhood or adolescence.

»When adolescents are chronically stressed out, their brains excessively prune away brain cells and dendrites, leaving them at risk for mental illness. Because the teen brain is undergoing a massive overhaul, most mental illness reveals itself in adolescence for this reason.

»Millions of American students drop out. Those who don't don't always thrive. There is a term for kids who get to college already burned out: crispies. We may not be #1 in math and science, but we are #1 in it the world in many alarming areas like ritalin consumption in children, prescriptions of anti-anxiety medication for college students, prescriptions of anti-depressants, anti-anxiety and anti-psychotics among adolescents, diagnoses and medication of ADHD and ADD, mental illness, obesity, addiction, crime and incarceration.

»In some states, jail cells are built based on literacy rates of elementary school students.

»Imagine. Instead of officials allocating resources for, making time, space and place for teachers to be with students and find out what's not working for them with reading, possibly dyslexia or vision processing or no books at home or nobody at home, we are instructed to send reading scores to people who only envision a cell with bars, not broken-hearted kids with dreams.

»Teachers are not paid to be healers. But, the good ones, the ones who love teaching and love their kids, the ones who make such a positive impact on kids that they never forget them, those teachers and students (and parents) know in their gut that good teaching is healing for kids who need it.

»And let us not, for a moment, think these programs have not deeply affected teachers.

»Over-testing requires preparation time, focus on teaching what's on the test since it's unfathomably tied to teachers' jobs and school budgets.

»Over-testing places the focus on testing, not teaching; scoring, not learning; managing, not engaging; and apathy, not curiosity.

»Over-testing eclipsed a teacher's creativity to come up with new ideas, to elicit innovate thinking from students, to encourage their questions, to spark discussion that goes a little longer than expected because everyone go into it and took it somewhere beyond a rubric, beyond a lesson plan that must feed into a test which then measures a child's comprehension which determines a teacher's ability to teach which influences her job status and ultimately the school's eligibility for funding. Teachers, under duress and stress, lose their spark, too. Teachers must feel engaged, valued, respected, too.

Over-testing eclipsed a teacher's creativity to come up with new ideas, to elicit innovate thinking from students, to encourage their questions, to spark discussion that goes a little longer than expected because everyone go into it and took it somewhere beyond a rubric, beyond a lesson plan.

»There is enough science now, a mountain of evidence, that shows us how children learn best, how important a healthy brain is to a child's development, how necessary it is to create an environment and educational culture that integrates learning with curiosity, wonder, play, movement, arts, music, social and emotional connection, engagement, innovation, empathy and compassion. When we exclude or cut any of these from our education "approach," we don't just lower scores, we create a systemic decline. A decline in the health and wellbeing of our kids. We aren't scoring well there, either.

»In fact, the United States ranks #26 on the United Nations global report on children's wellbeing. How many countries were ranked in the report? 29. We are 26th out of 29 in children's overall wellbeing. That includes education.

»Just like a body that thrives when it is cared for with healthy food, exercise, sleep, creativity and novelty, love and connection. And then breaks down and gets sick when we lack sleep. When we over-eat. When we are sedentary. When we narrow our world and stop learning. When we are lonely, isolated, hurt and neglected.

»We are neurobiologically designed for learning. That's how we grow, and scientists are now discovering it's the key to neurogenesis--the brain's ability to grow new neurons.

»Here's an acronym for us to ponder: R.E.S.T.

»Resilience, engagement, social connection and trust.

»We all need it. Our kids need it immediately and without delay.

»We must give our unhealthy system REST.

»It's not too late to restore children's love of learning and teachers' love of teaching.

»We must all educate ourselves about what children and teachers need, and pursue it, not as an ideal, but as an inalienable human right.»





The innovation execution

2015/10/29

«Give 1% of profit for research and start-ups, says NITI Aayog report»



Chetan Chauhan. Hindustan Times



«A government panel wants companies to allocate 1% of their profit for research by universities and to fund start-ups, in line with Prime Minister Narendra Modi’s push for R&D and new business ventures in the country.

»Also, it asks the government to hold an annual innovation challenge competition where a dozen winners can get dedicated funds to take their ideas to the market.

»A National Institution for Transforming India (NITI) Aayog’s panel on Atal Innovation Mission has recommended a different approach to foster innovation and research in India with an aim to revive manufacturing and to provide new job opportunities to the Indian youth.

»Government sources said the prime minister’s office has asked ministries to examine the recommendations while framing a manufacturing policy and for the 2016-17 budget.

»Finance minister Arun Jaitely had announced Rs 150 crore to Atal Innovation Mission in his previous budget speech after which a committee to recommend the framework of the scheme was set up.

»A target of Rs 200 crore a year should be set for public investment in incubators in the initial years, said the panel dominated by experts from the private sector. It asked the government to scale up funding.



»Faster pace of change

»As ecologists, we know one thing for sure: when the climate changes, organisms move.

»During the last ice age, a time when the world was around 10 degrees Fahrenheit colder, forests dominated Death Valley, California, a place that is now a hot desert. What happened to the trees? They moved. Over many generations, their offspring dispersed to new locations and survived where they found conditions more favorable.

»Many millions of years ago, at a time when Earth was much warmer, there were relatives of the alligator living at the poles. Why were they there? Because the climate was suitable for alligators and their offspring.

»By moving, a species effectively reduces its exposure to changing conditions: if each generation is able to find suitable climates, then over time they all end up experiencing similar conditions.

»The fossil record shows wave after wave of species migration. This process of geographic reconfiguration is disorganized and messy, with strange combinations of organisms living together as they pass through geologic time. (Interestingly, one biological consequence of migration may be the long periods of relatively little evolutionary change that we see in the fossil record: migration reduces evolutionary pressure for species to adapt to changing conditions.)

»As dramatic as past episodes of climate change have been, they have generally played out over very long time periods, so the average rates of migration were fairly slow.

»The situation today is quite different, as the rate of change in the next century is projected to be at least 10 times the rate observed at the end of the last ice age.

»Ecologists estimate that some species confronting climate change today will need to move many kilometers per year, on average, to keep pace with warming projected under the current “business-as-usual” emissions trajectory, which would result in 4-8 degrees Celsius average temperature increase this century. For some species, however, migrations can be very different: they may move shorter distances but move, for example, from the base to the top of mountains or from coastal to inland locations.

A target of Rs 200 crore a year should be set for public investment in incubators in the initial years, said the panel dominated by experts from the private sector.

»The panel suggested a slew of funding measures, including private companies dedicating 1% of their profit to start-ups and incubators and funding innovative research in universities.

»It said money from the corporate social responsibility fund of companies could also be used for funding innovative ideas.

»The panel advised the government to introduce a “Make in Universities” programme by setting up 500 labs with one 3D printer each to boost the spirit of “production and collaboration” across the country.

»All contracts with foreign defence companies above $5 billion should include a clause for 5% of value to be directed to establish research-centric universities, it said.

»A slew of changes are needed, the committee said, because India had been lagging in innovation with only 40,000 new jobs created through incubators since 1982.

»To show how India fared globally, the report said, the Global Innovation Index 2014 gave India the lowest position among all BRIC nations and criticised the nation’s education system for bias against ideas and innovators.

»Indian entrepreneurs struggle four to five times more for raising money as compared to their American counterparts and the difficulty increases manifold for women and those from the deprived section, it said, quoting two recent surveys.»





An innovation

2015/10/28

«Debating Donald Trump's Radical Leadership Style: Innovator Or Narcissist?»



Sarah Miller Caldicott. Forbes



«Gird yourself for another bruising war of words as the third wave of Republican debates approaches on Oct 28. Donald Trump and his no-holds-barred leadership style promise to march onto our screens and grab us by the throat. Given that The Donald sustains a commanding lead in national ABC News polls with a whopping 42% of respondents picking Trump as the Republican nominee, the GOP has begun thinking the unthinkable – that Trump might actually pull off the Republican nomination. Trailing at 15% is Trump’s closest competitor - Washington outsider Ben Carson (now on a book tour) – with Jeb Bush lagging badly at 12%. The evening promises to knock out many candidates registering single digits in the polls.

»But rather than offering our usual “I can’t believe he just said that” response to Trump’s verbal jousts, here are a few points to watch for in the debate to help analyze his underlying leadership style. Despite our love of hearing someone brazenly speak the truth to power, if there’s even a hint that he may become the bona fide 2016 GOP presidential nominee, it’s crucial to examine the depth of Trump’s seductive message. Is he an innovator who’s authentically offering a big vision of something new for America, or is he a narcissist who’s got his sights set on advancing his own brand? Or, is he something in between – someone in the mold of former GE CEO Jack Welsh or iconic Chrysler CEO Lee Iacocca, businessmen who both brandished a big vision and inspired others to conquer the seemingly impossible?

»If, as some believe, Donald Trump’s candidacy represents a mood rather than a movement we can begin teasing out how Trump’s rhetoric lines up with four positive qualities that define lasting leaders. These qualities are the hardest for narcissists to adopt and sustain. So get out your pencils and ready your iPad to keep score on how Trump fares on the following core leadership qualities.

»Listening without interrupting – In a complex world, information changes rapidly and the ability to listen with patience and without pre-judgement can mean the difference between making a good decision versus a disastrous one. Trump frequently demonstrates a disregard for listening, interrupting the air time of his fellow candidates, or even talking over them. Leaders don’t always need to be heavy handed to be influential. Sometimes listening reveals more about a leader’s mindset and strategic ability than what they express verbally in the moment. Tomas Chamorro-Premuzic – a psychologist and faculty member at Columbia University who studies narcissism – notes that the inability to listen to another person’s point of view can signal underlying anger or a fear of being ignored. Narcissists not only love to interrupt, they often get angry in the process. Let’s see how The Donald scores on this one.

»Admitting mistakes – Although no one relishes the idea of being called out for their errors or failures, at some point we all have come up short on important goals. One of the most sought-after qualities in leaders today is humility. Different from being weak-kneed or lacking ambition, a willingness to admit mistakes ensures a leader is in touch with reality. Although being beholden to shareholders is different than a politician’s service to voters, CEOs like A.G. Lafley of Procter and Gamble and CEO Satya Nadella of Microsoft sustain inspiration among employees when they are honest about poor company results. But Donald Trump hates to be wrong and becomes almost apoplectic when someone suggests he has erred. Experts indicate alpha males in particular “intimidate with their confidence, brains and maneuvering skills” to avoid blame while instead blaming others. Note on your checklist whether Trump ‘fesses up to any missteps as he’s questioned by debate moderators.

»Expressing empathy – Trump has coldly blasted the plight of immigrants in the US, citing undocumented workers as an unwanted population offering no value to the nation. Promising to deport 11 million immigrants if he’s elected, Trump shows no empathy in discussions on ways to create a path to citizenship for immigrants. Similarly, The Donald’s rhetoric about the shortcomings of women as contributors to business or politics has been labeled a “war on women” – hardly a path for connecting to core issues that are central to wage inequality or challenges facing working families. Michael Maccoby, an expert on narcissism and its impact on teams and organizations, reminds us that “it is very hard for narcissists to work through their issues... because of their extreme independence and self-protectiveness. It is very difficult to get near them.” Without the ability to express empathy, Trump will come up short in negotiating with world leaders – or Congress – and fail to connect with voters on core issues that impact their daily lives.

Radical thinkers often forge a new path to effect change in ways that no one else could. In fact, according to Maccoby, a unique breed of “productive narcissism” can offer a path toward adoption of radical concepts that could never have been embraced without such boldness.

»Sharing the limelight – Being able to express gratitude for the contributions of others and acknowledging the strengths of players on your team represent essential qualities of collaborative leaders. Today, no one at the helm of an entire nation can pretend to have all the answers. And no political candidate can afford to consider themselves an expert on every matter from cyber security to Medicare to counter-terrorism. Working collaboratively ensures development of more robust context around a complex challenge rather than simply “categorizing” it. When complexity is present, as collaboration expert Mary Boone states, “hindsight does not lead to foresight because the external conditions and systems constantly change.” If Trump cannot operate as a collaborative leader, he will miss the boat on developing context with the appropriate depth and nuance for the situation at hand. That gap holds huge consequences in a post 9/11 world.

»Regardless of how many points Trump wins or does not win on your checklist, experts suggest that narcissistic leaders can be extraordinarily useful—even necessary —for real change to occur. Radical thinkers often forge a new path to effect change in ways that no one else could. In fact, according to Maccoby, a unique breed of “productive narcissism” can offer a path toward adoption of radical concepts that could never have been embraced without such boldness. If we look back historically to innovators like Thomas Edison, Henry Ford, Mahatma Ghandi, or Winston Churchill, we see echoes of productive narcissism in their leadership styles. Their communication skills, their charisma, and their unique vision propelled them to the headlines worldwide, inspiring millions to think and operate beyond the status quo. The world uniquely benefited from their radical innovations.

»But at this stage, Trump’s “Make America Great Again” platform is less about innovation and more about raw emotional appeal. His message connects us to a past that was much more orderly, much simpler, less filled with unpredictable daily events that can hold global impact. Rather than really innovating, Trump has masterfully harnessed key emotional triggers that motivate us to listen – with incredulity at times. His message motivates us to hold confidence in the future, to regain a sense of freedom and well-being. We love the thrill that comes with witnessing Trump elbow aside career politicians in a way that feels new and different – even radical. These motivating emotional threads are woven throughout Trump’s campaign, but the substance of his proposals has a long way to go.

»Is Donald Trump an innovator, or a narcissist? We cannot overlook the importance of the social, economic, and technological change that must be championed by the next US president. If there is any power in narcissism, it must be channeled toward productive outcomes. It’s not enough to put forward an entire platform that rests on “having great management.” True leaders address inspiring and critical questions that don’t just whip our emotions into a frenzy – they empower and motivate innovative solutions.»





An innovator

2015/10/27

«Does Palo Alto need a new secondary school?»



Elena Kadvany. Palo Alto Weekly



«Enrollment management subcommittee to present preliminary research [...].

»A school district committee charged with looking at how to better manage enrollment in Palo Alto Unified is making a preliminary recommendation that the district open a new, innovative middle and high school at Cubberley Community Center.

»Though not yet a final recommendation, the vision for this new secondary school is incredibly detailed and has been guided by research, survey results, focus groups, interviews and school visits conducted by a secondary-focused subcommittee of the Enrollment Management Advisory Committee (EMAC). The subcommittee will present an update on its work to the school board on Monday night, as a subcommittee focused on the elementary schools did earlier this month.

»The new school, with about 100 to 150 students per grade, would relieve some of the enrollment strain at the existing middle and high schools, which the subcommittee says are too big right now, with more growth on the way in the next 15 years.

»The school would not be structured like the existing secondary schools but rather under a choice-program model, such as project-based learning or International Baccalaureate, the subcommittee wrote in the report to come before the board on Monday night. It could also double as an "incubator" or "innovation hub" for the entire school district, the subcommittee wrote.

»School curriculum should be innovative (with an entirely separate committee to be convened to develop it) and would reflect research that places value on experience-based, inquiry-oriented, team and cross-disciplinary learning, the subcommittee recommends.

»"The EMAC committee has become increasingly aware that the Palo Alto community has been primed for a conversation and we are at a unique moment in time to deliver innovation in our schools," the report reads.

»The subcommittee's preliminary proposals suggest there is not only a need for outside-the-box thinking around a new secondary school, but also improvements and innovations that can and should be made at the existing middle and high schools.

»Enrollment at Palo Alto and Gunn high schools this year sits at just under 2,000 students, with 1,979 at Paly and 1,886 at Gunn. Jordan Middle School is the largest middle school with 1,130 students this year. Jane Lathrop Stanford (JLS) Middle School is next with 1,112 students. Terman Middle School still remains small with 749 students this year, though its physical plant is also smaller than the other two middle schools.

»The subcommittee found that Palo Alto's secondary schools are also larger than national averages and other local, comparable schools.

»Palo Alto's middle schools enroll an average of 879 students, compared to a national average of 576, according to the subcommittee. The high schools enroll an average of 1,870 students, far above the national average of 847, according to the subcommittee.

»And next to comparable schools in local districts with similar socio-economics and demographics, Palo Alto middle schools are 7 to 20 percent larger (in number of students) and the two high schools, 11 percent larger, according to the subcommittee.

»The subcommittee found an "inverted U" relationship between school size and things like learning effectiveness and economic efficiency. Economic efficiency and learning effectiveness began to decrease at enrollments above 700 students for elementary schools, 900 for middle schools and 1,700 for high schools, according to a school size report prepared for the Maryland State Department of Education. The group's report also cites connections between school size and student engagement, teacher and parent satisfaction, school climate and support for low-income families.

»The subcommittee found in a survey that parental satisfaction with school size in Palo Alto drops off "precipitously" as they move through the district. While 62 percent of elementary parents said they were strongly satisfied or satisfied with the overall size of their schools today, only 30 percent of middle school parents and 24 percent of high school parents said the same.

»"I'm terrified about size of the middle schools, they are going to be overwhelming. I can't imagine. Schools seem to be bursting at the seams," one elementary parent told the subcommittee. "I think they are too large to really be a good learning environment."

»"We feel very impacted. Space is at a premium," a Paly administrator told the subcommittee. "There is too little parking, office space, meeting space is impacted. Teachers do not have enough collaboration space. (It) was 1,600 in 2007. Now ... the school feels too big."

»Gunn students told the subcommittee that in some large classes, teachers didn't know all of their students' names, and relied on lecturing rather than interacting with students.

»Parental survey scores for "connectedness" and "social well-being" – which are often attributed to total school size – also show poor to middling levels of satisfaction, the report notes. In the most recent California Health Kids Survey (CHKS), students report high feelings of connectedness in fifth grade (74 percent), which drops to 67 percent in seventh grade, 66 percent in ninth and 65 percent in eleventh (the grade levels at which this survey is administered annually).

»Parents also expressed "significant appetite" for more personalized learning and more choice programs (with project-based being the most popular model) like Mandarin and Spanish immersion or Connections at JLS. Students also reported high satisfaction with programs like Paly's Social Justice Pathway, through which a cohort of students move through three grades together, with the same teachers and learning about a particular subject of interest.

Parents also expressed "significant appetite" for more personalized learning and more choice programs (with project-based being the most popular model) like Mandarin and Spanish immersion or Connections at JLS.

»Another preliminary recommendation from the subcommittee is to form small learning communities – like cohorts or schools within schools – within the existing secondary schools to increase connection between students and teachers.

»The Institute of Design at Stanford, also known as the d.school, and its K-12 Education Lab have expressed interest in helping the district to develop a new school. One full-time fellow and 1 1/2 staff members started in September working on "applying design thinking, interviewing and facilitation as inputs to a PAUSD-led design process," the subcommittee's report reads.

»The school district is also currently in talks with the City of Palo Alto to develop a master plan for the entire Cubberley Community Center campus on Middlefield Road.

»The subcommittee's report notes increasing educational competition in Palo Alto with many private schools and new innovative options coming to town, from a school where all students learn in one-on-one classes to an alternative K-8 school founded by a former Google executive.

»The subcommittee does offer several other secondary options for the district -- opening a new yet traditionally structured secondary school, creating more choice programs and investing resources into existing secondary schools rather than spending funding on a new school -- but notes that these ideas might not be "ambitious" enough to satisfy the enrollment committee's charge.

»"We sense restlessness among our community that the status quo is not good enough. We hear the community is ready to engage in making our schools good ⇒ great. We see innovation already bubbling in pockets throughout our secondary schools, which could benefit from a concerted, catalyzing push," the report reads. "We feel that remedies to better student-teacher connectedness aren't necessarily difficult nor expensive to implement. We're not advocating a referendum on the existing secondary schools. Rather, we recommend enhancing the good programs already in-flight.

»"The creation of new secondary school is necessary but not sufficient," the report adds. "We recommend a 'both/and' approach."

»The entire enrollment committee is expected to bring a set of final recommendations to the board in December. It will likely propose that a new advisory committee be convened in January to continue further work, like designing a new school. Staff will also be convening at least one public forum for community feedback.

»The Monday, Oct. 26, meeting will run from 6 to 9 p.m. at the district office, 25 Churchill Ave., Palo Alto. Read the full agenda here





Public Administration and innovation

2015/10/26

Newsletter L&I, n.º 75 (2015-10-26)




Administração Pública e inovação | Administración Pública e innovación |
Administration Publique et innovation | Public Administration and innovation

Um inovador | Un innovador | Un innovateur | An innovator

Uma inovação | Una innovación | Une innovation | An innovation

A execução da inovaçao | La ejecución de la innovación | L’exécution de l’innovation |
The innovation execution



Liderar Inovando (BR)

«A inovação precisa estar presente em todas as dimensões de um negócio» [web] [intro]
«Cultura inovadora: como cultivá-la em seu negócio? Respondido por Ricardo Fasti» [web] [intro]
«Startup cria aplicativo que revoluciona a forma que pessoas encontram residência» [web] [intro]
«Recife é o Vale do Silício brasileiro» [web] [intro]

Liderar Inovando (PT)

«Na ilha de Man, as bitcoins são cada vez mais reais» [web] [intro]
«Entrevista. Mário Centeno: “Nada é mais flexível do que um contrato a prazo”» [web] [intro]
«Ferramenta de Avaliação Versão inovação social 2.0» [web] [intro]
«Krugman volta a recorrer a Portugal para exemplificar efeitos negativos do Euro» [web] [intro]

Liderar Innovando (ES)

«Arrancan este jueves 'Los Jueves al Sol' de la UHU, un foro de emprendimiento social como motor de cambio» [web] [intro]
«Voluntariado Corporativo: una gran oportunidad» [web] [intro]
La estación experimental INIA Las Brujas celebró 50 años exhibiendo todo su potencial en investigación hortifrutícola, vitivinicultura, ganadería familiar, genética y biotecnología [web] [intro]
«Festival Internacional de Innovación Social (fiiS) te invita a comenzar el cambio» [web] [intro]

Mener avec Innovation (FR)

«De la finance autrement à la finance pour les autres» [web] [intro]
«Movember invite les innovateurs sociaux à présenter des idées transformatrices»[web] [intro]
«L’“africapitalisme”, des solutions africaines aux enjeux africains» [web] [intro]
«Sinistré, le nord de la France refuse le souverainisme économique» [web] [intro]

Leadership and Innovation (EN)

«SIGEF 2015, Opening New Horizons in Social Innovation» [web] [intro]
«Australian Innovation: Ideapod For Idea Sharing» [web] [intro]
«We are entering a new era of migration – and not just for people» [web] [intro]
«From the Ashoka Change Leaders: Working Towards Becoming an Ashoka Changemaker Campus» [web] [intro]

Licencia Creative Commons Licencia Creative Commons
Atribución-NoComercial 4.0 Internacional








2015/10/23

«From the Ashoka Change Leaders: Working Towards Becoming an Ashoka Changemaker Campus»



Adam Kay. COMPANION. Via University of St. Thomas



«Do you want to change the world? Do you want to inspire future leaders to create social change that contributes to the common good? A new effort aims to help make this happen.

»The University of St. Thomas is seeking to become a member of the Changemaker Campus program of Ashoka U, a leading organization for infusing social innovation into higher education. Ashoka U is an initiative of Ashoka, the world’s largest network of social entrepreneurs. The organization collaborates with colleges and universities to promote institutional change and create a campus culture of social innovation. The major objectives of the Ashoka U program are to

»1.to empower students, faculty, and staff to create change on campus, in their community, and across the globe;

»2.to break down institutional barriers that discourage innovation; and

»3.to connect Changemaker Campuses to form a global network of campus and community social innovation leaders.

»There are currently thirty Changemaker colleges and universities. They consist of U.S. universities (e.g., Brown, Duke, University of Maryland, University of San Diego) and colleges (e.g., Babson, Middlebury), and international institutions of higher learning (Glascow Caledonian University, Tecnológico de Monterrey).

»UST began exploring an association with Ashoka U in 2014. For the past two years, a delegation of UST administrators, faculty, and students have attended the Ashoka Exchange, a meeting devoted to fostering changemaker communities, reimagining the classroom experience, building community partnerships, creating student pathways for innovation, and measuring the impact of social entrepreneurship.

The aim of the Scan is to identify and assess the main social innovation activities at UST, catalyze a deeper commitment to social innovation on campus, generate new insights and ideas about what additional activities and programs could work at UST, and get feedback, recommendations, and comparative institutional case studies from Ashoka U.

»The UST delegations were enthusiastic enough about the potential of Ashoka U to begin exploring the possibility of gaining membership to the Ashoka Changemaker Campus consortium. With support of the UST administration, we have begun what is referred to as a 360° Campus Scan, a tool for accelerating social innovation education on campus. The effort is being led by Change Leaders Adam Kay (Associate Professor of Biology), Camille George (Associate Vice Provost for Global and Local Engagement), and Brian Abraham (Associate Dean of the Schultze School of Entrepreneurship).

»Our first step in the Scan was to create a Change Team. In addition to the Change Leaders, the Change Team consists of staff (Marjorie Siegel, Margaret Cahill), faculty (Tim Balke, Catherine Cory, Kundan Nepal, Christopher Michaelson), and students (Omar Warfa, Parker Hewes). We are seeking to add two community partners. We also have a number of UST members identified as Change Champions who will assist in the process in a more limited role.

»The aim of the Scan is to identify and assess the main social innovation activities at UST, catalyze a deeper commitment to social innovation on campus, generate new insights and ideas about what additional activities and programs could work at UST, and get feedback, recommendations, and comparative institutional case studies from Ashoka U.

»The initial step in the Scan was to have Change Leaders and Change Team members complete a survey put together by Ashoka U. Survey questions asked Team members to describe their backgrounds and explain how they became interested in social innovation, to outline how they expect to contribute to the Change Team, and to evaluate the extent to which social innovation is already embedded into UST’s community and culture, leadership, teaching and curriculum, co-curricular programs, and overall institutional strategy. Ashoka U will take our responses and create a first-pass assessment of the UST social innovation ecosystem. After that, the Change Team will begin the process of compiling information about social innovation activities on campus, and will reach out to campus members to spark or help develop additional social change activities.

»At this point, we have completed the survey and have met to outline general strategies. We hope to soon have our Change Team assessment from Ashoka, at which point we will begin our work in earnest.

»We hope the 360 Campus Scan will be the first step toward giving all of us more ideas, more confidence, and more support to affect the changes needed to address pressing local and global problems.»





The innovation execution

2015/10/22

«We are entering a new era of migration – and not just for people»



Jessica Hellmann and David Ackerly (The Conversation) via Scroll



«The world is watching as refugees flood into a Europe unprepared for the new arrivals. Conflict and social unrest due in part to climate stress – including induced food shortages and social conflict – have prompted migrants to search for new homes and new opportunities.

»To ecologists, however, this comes as no surprise.

»When we look at the history of life on Earth, we see a repeated pattern in the response of living things to environmental change. Plants and animals alike have a remarkable capacity to migrate in response to changing conditions. Over many generations and thousands of years, this leads to wholesale changes in the geographic distribution of species and composition of the world’s ecosystems. Species may adapt to climate change, and sometimes go extinct, but movement is a nearly ubiquitous response.

»This observation of past migrations gives us a window into the future, suggesting how life – including human life – may unfold under modern climate change.

»Specifically, given the scale of climatic and environmental changes confronting Earth today, we may be confronting an unprecedented era of human migration.



»Faster pace of change

»As ecologists, we know one thing for sure: when the climate changes, organisms move.

»During the last ice age, a time when the world was around 10 degrees Fahrenheit colder, forests dominated Death Valley, California, a place that is now a hot desert. What happened to the trees? They moved. Over many generations, their offspring dispersed to new locations and survived where they found conditions more favorable.

»Many millions of years ago, at a time when Earth was much warmer, there were relatives of the alligator living at the poles. Why were they there? Because the climate was suitable for alligators and their offspring.

»By moving, a species effectively reduces its exposure to changing conditions: if each generation is able to find suitable climates, then over time they all end up experiencing similar conditions.

»The fossil record shows wave after wave of species migration. This process of geographic reconfiguration is disorganized and messy, with strange combinations of organisms living together as they pass through geologic time. (Interestingly, one biological consequence of migration may be the long periods of relatively little evolutionary change that we see in the fossil record: migration reduces evolutionary pressure for species to adapt to changing conditions.)

»As dramatic as past episodes of climate change have been, they have generally played out over very long time periods, so the average rates of migration were fairly slow.

»The situation today is quite different, as the rate of change in the next century is projected to be at least 10 times the rate observed at the end of the last ice age.

»Ecologists estimate that some species confronting climate change today will need to move many kilometers per year, on average, to keep pace with warming projected under the current “business-as-usual” emissions trajectory, which would result in 4-8 degrees Celsius average temperature increase this century. For some species, however, migrations can be very different: they may move shorter distances but move, for example, from the base to the top of mountains or from coastal to inland locations.



The social and technological innovations of human society have in many ways decoupled our lives from direct dependence on local climate, at least in developed societies.

»Human dependence on other species

»Will people move these long distances, over a short period of time, too?

»The social and technological innovations of human society have in many ways decoupled our lives from direct dependence on local climate, at least in developed societies. We regulate the environment we inhabit in our houses and cars, and move food and water vast distances from where it is available or can be produced in abundance to where it is needed.

»Yet the other species we depend on – especially for food and fiber – have their own climate requirements.

»Changing climates are rapidly prompting farmers and foresters to plant different species or cultivars, to move the production of particular crops toward cooler or moister locations, and to place increased pressures on limited supplies of irrigation water.

»Where agriculture becomes difficult, or even impossible, or when other climatic limits are passed, we people may take to the road as well.

»In the fossil record, migration is the dominant signal of response to a climate, but today technology and socioeconomic innovation give us many other ways to adapt in place. And, at the same time, global markets for goods free us, to an extent, from dependence on local conditions.

»On the other hand, the technologies and global markets that allow us to adapt to changing conditions also facilitate human movement, and link our economies, making us all vulnerable to climate impacts felt around the world.

»There is no doubt that climate change is one factor exacerbating social and political turmoil across the globe, and these effects may intensify quickly in coming years and decades. Human migrations – just like the responses of nonhuman creatures – will be hard to predict, chaotic and haphazard. Yet, if we heed the lessons from ecology and the fossil record, we would do well to prepare for the growing numbers and needs of climate refugees, whether fleeing sea level rise, heat waves, drought and famine, and the social conflicts all of these can cause.



»Dealing with geographic change

»Ecologists charged with managing nonhuman, natural resources are planning for species migrations in many ways, including:

»* identifying regions with the fastest climatic shifts where we expect the greatest migration,

»* planning parks and preserves to serve as recipients for migrating species, and preserving the corridors that allow plants and animals to move through heavily fragmented urban and agricultural landscapes,

»* looking to regions with more stable climates to serve as refugia where communities and ecosystems may be naturally resilient. In some cases, they are looking to facilitate migration because we know that moving allows species to avoid the trap of being stuck in a degrading climate.


»A look at species migration in California. [video]

»The analogy is imperfect, but we must plan for migration of human populations as well. That means seeking to identify and enhance resilient communities that can support vibrant communities in the face of rapid environmental and social change. And we must accommodate people who seek places that are better today and more suitable in the future.

»If the biological past foretells the future, political leaders must prepare for an era of profound geographic change, a modern era of migration.»





An innovation

2015/10/21

«Australian Innovation: Ideapod For Idea Sharing»



Libby-Jane Charleston. Huffington Post Australia



«Social media platform Ideapod is a new Australian-made way for people to share ideas and collaborate, and it’s capturing the interest of the Richard Bransons of the world. Ideapod is the brainchild of Melbourne men, Mark Bakacs and Justin Brown who moved to the U.S. to pursue the business and, after successfully launching, are now open in Australia.

»The men received an enormous boost when Richard Branson officially endorsed their platform.

»Branson described the innovation as “offering a space where people can bounce ideas off each other”.

»“Ideapod increases everyone’s chances of coming up with game-changing concepts,” Branson said.

»Bakacs and Brown met Branson when they were invited to his private island, Necker Island, as part of a small group of entrepreneurs attending Branson’s Change Makers event.

»The duo said Ideapod was currently equal with Facebook’s engagement; an average duration of 15 minutes. Monthly active users were consistently growing at 35 percent monthly and is now being used in more than 200 countries.

»Users post ideas limited to 1000 characters or 40 second videos, with the community bringing the ideas to life.

»Bakacs was a corporate lawyer and Brown was finishing his PhD when they decided to take a chance, quit their work, move to the U.S. and create Ideapod.

»“The first step was to build up a team, so we brought on board a designer and a senior developer,” Bakacs said.

Many ideas are shared about how to live a positive and optimistic life, what’s happening in current affairs or new developments in science and technology.

»“From that point we built some early prototypes of the platform and showed these to prospective investors and users of the platform.

»“Ideapod appeals to a wide range of age groups. We have some young teenagers sharing some incredibly thought provoking ideas, as well as a man in his 90s sharing his perspective on macroeconomics.”

»For those who like to keep ideas close to their chest, Ideapod is developing private areas of the site. But, for now, most ideas are of the inspirational kind.

»“There will be a private area where ideas can be shared and protected,” Brown said. “But many ideas are shared about how to live a positive and optimistic life, what’s happening in current affairs or new developments in science and technology.

»“We are developing private areas of the site where ideas can be shared and protected.” “There have been examples of people meeting on Ideapod and building businesses together. One example is Liminal, a virtual reality company created by two of our users who first met in person after six months of dialogue on the site.”

»If a person has, for example, a fresh idea for an app or a game, they’re able to share their thoughts in the general subject area of what they’re working on.

»“Then, the community will engage in conversation, create relationships between ideas, suggest new ideas to consider and help each other create new perspectives on what’s being considered,” Bakacs said.

»“Ideapod really is for everyone, as we all have ideas to share.” For Brown, the concept is about pushing ideas beyond one individual’s capabilities. “When we all express our ideas, and work together, there’s no limit to what can be achieved for each other and for our planet,” Brown said.

»“We created Ideapod because we saw the potential of social media to be meaningful and collaborative.”»





An innovator

2015/10/20

«SIGEF 2015, Opening New Horizons in Social Innovation»



PVBLIC Foundation via Marketwired



«NGOs, Socially Innovative Projects and a Notable Line-Up of Speakers Come Together at the Social Innovation and Global Ethics Forum (SIGEF 2015), a Three-Day International Event Dedicated to shaping Better Times to Come.

»Horyou, the social network for social good, and the Horyou Foundation will host the second edition of the Social Innovation and Global Ethics Forum at the Bâtiment des Forces Motrices in Geneva, Switzerland, Oct. 23 - 25.

»SIGEF is an annual international event that gathers non-profit organizations, speakers, social entrepreneurs and the general public for three days of dialogue and discussion. It features plenary sessions, cultural activities and networking opportunities, as well as NGO and project showcases. Founder and CEO Yonathan Parienti states, "SIGEF 2015 is the ideal place for all participants to rethink the future, identify current challenges, provide answers and draw new paths to truly sustainable development. This edition will involve a diverse community of innovators and social good promoters."

»The forum will include eight plenary sessions with more than fifty international speakers taking the lead by presenting their views in subject areas based on Social Innovation and Global Ethics practices that are making a difference in today's world. Some of the main sessions will focus on: Impact Investment, Philanthropy, Media and the Internet, Social Entrepreneurship, Food and Agriculture, Climate and Biodiversity, Transnational Scientific Cooperation, Culture and the Arts, Technological Evolution and Youth for Social Change.

The forum will include eight plenary sessions with more than fifty international speakers taking the lead by presenting their views in subject areas based on Social Innovation and Global Ethics practices that are making a difference in today's world.

»Around one hundred non-profit organizations currently present on the Horyou platform will be attending the forum. They will have the opportunity to network with other organizations from around the world while showing their projects and achievements on stage to the forum's participants, attendees and the media.

»Along with speakers and NGOs, the Innovative Project showcase is also an essential component. It invites social entrepreneurs from all over the globe to share their visions and initiatives. "We are selecting more than sixty projects from around the world including ten projects reflecting a collaboration between Horyou and the UNESCO Youth Forum," Parienti noted.

»Finally, cultural events, concerts, performances and community activities are scheduled to compliment SIGEF 2015 including a delegated visit from the China Charity Alliance whose Chairman is H.E. Mr. Li Liguo, Chinese Minister of Civil Affairs. In addition, on October 23rd, the Horyou Foundation will be hosting its Fundraising Dinner with the participation of special guests and philanthropists at the Four Seasons Hotel. SIGEF 2015 is expected to partner with over fifty emerging and established international media outlets. "Spreading and communicating the valuable work of social innovators worldwide is of paramount importance in our interconnected world," Yonathan expressed. SIGEF 2015 will be streamed globally.

»This press release was made possible through our media partner PVBLIC Foundation, an organization focused on using media to drive impact and social change. PVBLIC utilizes existing and emerging technologies to increase issue awareness around important causes and to help non-profits amplify their message. For more information visit: pvblic.org.»





Public Administration and innovation

2015/10/17

Newsletter L&I, n.º 74 (2015-10-19)




Administração Pública e inovação | Administración Pública e innovación |
Administration Publique et innovation | Public Administration and innovation

Um inovador | Un innovador | Un innovateur | An innovator

Uma inovação | Una innovación | Une innovation | An innovation

A execução da inovaçao | La ejecución de la innovación | L’exécution de l’innovation |
The innovation execution



Liderar Inovando (BR)

«Tecnologias Sociais de ensino e pesquisa concorrem ao Prêmio Fundação BB (Banco de Brasil)» [web] [intro]
«Desenvolvimento, indústria e emprego» [web] [intro]
«A financeirização da política social: o caso brasileiro» [web] [intro]
«Como será o CEO do futuro?» [web] [intro]

Liderar Inovando (PT)

«A educadora indiana Kiran Sethi tem uma certeza: toda criança pode, e deve, mudar o mundo ao seu redor» [web] [intro]
«Uma estratégia de crescimento para a Europa» [web] [intro]
«Revolução tecnológica ameaça o futuro do emprego no Mundo» [web] [intro]
«Encontro ESRI 2015: a razão pela qual que a geografia vai dominar o mundo» [web] [intro]

Liderar Innovando (ES)

«Invertir en educación es el motor para el cambio social en América Latina: Microsoft» [web] [intro]
«¿Cómo debería ser la nueva economía del mundo?» [web] [intro]
«Tomando posiciones» [web] [intro]
«José Luis Martínez Guijarro, vicepresidente de Castilla-La Mancha: “No puede haber recuperación económica sin recuperación social”» [web] [intro]

Mener avec Innovation (FR)

«Cheikh Bakhoum, Directeur Général de l’ADIE : “3 fournisseurs d'accès internet sont attendus sur le marché”» [web] [intro]
«Le Salon World Efficiency: des solutions pour les ressources et le climat [web] [intro]
«Chômage, croissance et principe de précaution» [web] [intro]
«Plan de développement 2016-2020: De la nostalgie économique» [web] [intro]

Leadership and Innovation (EN)

«Delhi to host conference on "Competency Building for Excellence, Innovation and Social Change"» [web] [intro]
«The Evolution Of Japanese Startups: Innovation From The Ground Up» [web] [intro]
«Innovation is About People» [web] [intro]
«Social Innovation in Transport & Mobility» [web] [intro]

Licencia Creative Commons Licencia Creative Commons
Atribución-NoComercial 4.0 Internacional








2015/10/16

«Social Innovation in Transport & Mobility»



Report Buyer. Via MarketWatch



«Introduction

»Social Innovation: The Need for Global Change.

»The world is changing fast. The Transport and Mobility sector is a perfect example of an area riddled with challenges brought about by the complexities of the modern world, but ripe for innovation for the betterment of society, businesses, and individuals. In Transport and Mobility, the question is how will we empower our increasingly urbanised global population with door.to.door, multi.modal transport solutions that will be affordable for all our citizens.

»And furthermore, how can we deploy innovation to solve the growing challenges of congestion, emissions, safety, convenience and comfort? In our previous Whitepapers (http://www.hitachi.eu/en/sib/whitepapers/), we defined Social Innovation as "the deployment of technology and new business models to bring about real positive change to the lives of individuals and societies, creating shared value." By starting from the most critical global mega trends (Urbanisation; Smart is the New Green; Future of Energy; Future of Mobility; and Health, Wellness & Wellbeing), we identified the key element of convergence as absolutely critical to the delivery of Social Innovation. That means convergence of technologies, industries, products and business models, including finance. Looking closely at the sectors that Frost & Sullivan define as having the greatest need for Social Innovation (Energy, Water, Transportation, Healthcare, Manufacturing, Construction and Natural Resources), we also identified that Social Innovation will represent a market opportunity of $ trillion by 2020.

»In this Whitepaper we will highlight the specific mega trends impacting the future of mobility, and define what Social Innovation can deliver to the transportation market.

In this Whitepaper we will highlight the specific mega trends impacting the future of mobility, and define what Social Innovation can deliver to the transportation market.

We will take a deep dive into the challenges and opportunities for Social Innovation in Transport and Mobility, as well as quantifying the relevant opportunities and their impact from our extensive research in this market. We will also introduce Hitachi and its Social Innovation Business and show how the company has become a visionary global player with a thought leading position in the sphere of Social Innovation, as well as sharing some examples of ground.breaking projects being delivered around the world in the crucial areas of rail, V2X communication, traffic management and Electric Vehicle (EV) charging, and IT enabled services.

»We outline how Hitachi is building for the future using technology led solutions in an efficient, integrated way. This Whitepaper is supplemented by the findings and strategic discussions of the Social Innovation Forum, hosted in London on June 17th 2015 and co.hosted by Hitachi and Frost & Sullivan.

»Download the full report:
https://www.reportbuyer.com/product/3312518/social-innovation-in-transport-and-mobility.html


»Table of contents

»Introduction

»Social Innovation: The Need for Global Change

»Transport & Mobility: The Need for Innovation

»Mega Trends & Future of Mobility Vision

»Introduction & Future of Mobility Vision

»Urbanisation

»Technology: Connectivity & Convergence

»Social Changes & Preferences

»Smart Governance: Public Policy enabling Social Innovation

»Defining Social Innovation in Transportation & Mobility

»The need for Intervention and Social Innovation

»Social Innovation in Action - Today

»Journey Planning

»On-Demand Transport

»Electric Mobility

»Traffic Management

»Growth in Rail

»Social Innovation in the Future

»Quantifying the Opportunity

»Hitachi's Unique Contribution

»Social Innovation in Transportation & Mobility at Hitachi

»Hitachi's role in Connecting Mobility

»Hitachi High Speed & Advanced Rail Rolling Stock

»Customer Centric Vision to Improve Mobility

»Conclusion

»Cross-Sector Convergence in Social Innovation»





The innovation execution

2015/10/15

«Innovation is About People»



John Sweeney. IndustryWeek



«When people approach our organization – Brave New Workshop Creative Outreach – to work with them on their innovation programs, the first step is always to simply set up a call to get to know them and their situation. For more than 15 years I have started with the same question: “Can you tell me a little bit about your current innovation program?”

»Although I have posed that question more than one thousand times to thousands of different people in hundreds of different industries and organization whose programs varied in their degree of development, the answers seem to have much in common and are startlingly consistent.

»For often what seems like hours or even days, I listen to them share about initiatives, internal definitions written, programs launched, task forces created, company rallies, hiring and firing of chief innovation officers and third-party consultants, research and numerous dead ends.

»This is the point in the conversation at which I typically drop the big question. “So, tell me about what your company is doing to help people behave more innovatively?” On the phone, there is always an awkward silence; in person, there is a bit of eye glazing and a far-off stare. In both cases the reply is usually the same: “What do you mean by behavior?”

»I then get very complicated and scientific in my response, which is typically, “What I mean by behavior is, how do the people in your organization act? How do they treat each other? What does it feel like after people come up with ideas? What happens when an innovation attempt fails? How do people treat each other on conference calls or in brainstorming sessions? Does the vibe in the room ever change when certain individuals walk in? What I mean is: How do people behave?”

»We often forget about everyday behavior, because in a way it is so basic that the big thinkers – the super smart innovation architects – can assume that everyday behavior is a given that will automatically change once a great system is in place. The old saying “Everything looks like a nail to a hammer” can be an appropriate way to think about the manner in which innovation programs are structured – and often the teams who work on those programs forget a very basic ingredient of a successful innovation effort: the people – and all their fears, emotions, and humanness – who need to fuel it.

»Although sometimes Steve Jobs is quoted too frequently, we are fans, and can’t help but share the way he put it: “Innovation has nothing to do with how many R&D dollars you have. When Apple came up with the Mac, IBM was spending at least 100 times more on R&D. It’s not about money. It’s about the people you have, how you’re led, and how much you get it.”

»Innovation is about people and their assumptions and subconscious thought patterns (a.k.a. their mindset) and their daily actions and habits that stem from that mindset (a.k.a. their behavior). Put all those together, add some procedures, rewards and penalties, social dynamics, unspoken rules – and a pinch of stress – and you get a wonderfully messy, organic, and complex environment. An environment in which behavior, not lip service (although words are also important), drives the results. If you fail to address that daily behavior, even the greatest strategy and plan to drive innovation are doomed to fail.

»If the systems we create aren’t rooted in a thorough understanding of the human interaction they are supposed to support, they can actually deter the experience we want to create for our customers.

»Below are three tips to make sure you focus on people and keep them at the forefront of your innovation initiatives:

»1. Be relentlessly curious. Curiosity is an aggressive, investigative, almost inexhaustible need to learn, find out and experiment. That curiosity shows itself in how people communicate with others, as well as their ability to jump in and engage with a situation – or, in the context of innovation, try things out. Curiosity fuels our ability to intently listen to our teammates, colleagues, direct reports and customers.

Be relentlessly curious. Curiosity is an aggressive, investigative, almost inexhaustible need to learn, find out and experiment.

»2. Appreciate differences. Unique views and opinions are the key drivers of innovation – embrace them, don’t throw them to the curb. More often than not, it takes many iterations to land on the best product or path forward – allowing the people in your organization to contribute to those iterations – in big or small ways – inevitably empowers your workforce, builds trust and a sense of ownership.

»3. Walk the walk. First, honestly evaluate and observe your own behavior in a way that provides clear direction for what you need to do to get better at your job. Only then can you lead and contribute with a boldly realistic and open perspective. Be the first on your team to embrace a few powerful assumptions, including:

»•Mistakes are a great source of inspiration and learning. •Change is fuel—not an obstacle.

»•Ideas and honest opinions have value that we should celebrate, not judge.

»•We all have the power to create change and impact those around us.

»•We don’t need all the information just to begin.


»Focusing on helping your people – including yourself – embrace a mindset of discovery will help them (and you) behave consistently through highs and lows, to recognize possibilities, to listen for all available lessons, and to move forward into the unknown with a rational sense of risk and a miraculous sense of hope.»





An innovation