Saudi Vision 2030 | Vision 2030 Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (@SaudiVision2030)

Info: «Vision 2030 constitutes roadmap for kingdom s development, economy objectives for next 15 years, Deputy Crown Prince says», Saudi Vision 2030

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Mohammad bin Salman bin Abdulaziz Al Saud

Chairman of the Council of Economic and Development Affairs

»It is my pleasure to present Saudi Arabia's Vision for the future. It is an ambitious yet achievable blueprint, which expresses our long-term goals and expectations and reflects our country's strengths and capabilities.

»All success stories start with a vision, and successful visions are based on strong pillars.

»The first pillar of our vision is our status as the heart of the Arab and Islamic worlds. We recognize that Allah the Almighty has bestowed on our lands a gift more precious than oil. Our Kingdom is the Land of the Two Holy Mosques, the most sacred sites on earth, and the direction of the Kaaba (Qibla) to which more than a billion Muslims turn at prayer.

»The second pillar of our vision is our determination to become a global investment powerhouse. Our nation holds strong investment capabilities, which we will harness to stimulate our economy and diversify our revenues.

»The third pillar is transforming our unique strategic location into a global hub connecting three continents, Asia, Europe and Africa. Our geographic position between key global waterways, makes the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia an epicenter of trade and the gateway to the world.

»Our country is rich in its natural resources. We are not dependent solely on oil for our energy needs. Gold, phosphate, uranium, and many other valuable minerals are found beneath our lands. But our real wealth lies in the ambition of our people and the potential of our younger generation. They are our nation’s pride and the architects of our future. We will never forget how, under tougher circumstances than today, our nation was forged by collective determination when the late King Abdulaziz Al-Saud – may Allah bless his soul – united the Kingdom. Our people will amaze the world again.

»We are confident about the Kingdom’s future. With all the blessings Allah has bestowed on our nation, we cannot help but be optimistic about the decades ahead. We ponder what lies over the horizon rather than worrying about what could be lost.

»The future of the Kingdom, my dear brothers and sisters, is one of huge promise and great potential, God willing. Our precious country deserves the best. Therefore, we will expand and further develop our talents and capacity. We will do our utmost to ensure that Muslims from around the world can visit the Holy Sites.

»We are determined to reinforce and diversify the capabilities of our economy, turning our key strengths into enabling tools for a fully diversified future. As such, we will transform Aramco from an oil producing company into a global industrial conglomerate. We will transform the Public Investment Fund into the world’s largest sovereign wealth fund. We will encourage our major corporations to expand across borders and take their rightful place in global markets. As we continue to give our army the best possible machinery and equipment, we plan to manufacture half of our military needs within the Kingdom to create more job opportunities for citizens and keep more resources in our country.

»We will expand the variety of digital services to reduce delays and cut tedious bureaucracy. We will immediately adopt wide-ranging transparency and accountability reforms and, through the body set up to measure the performance of government agencies, hold them accountable for any shortcomings. We will be transparent and open about our failures as well as our successes, and will welcome ideas on how to improve.

»All this comes from the directive of the Custodian of the Two Holy Mosques, King Salman bin Abdulaziz Al-Saud, may Allah protect him, who ordered us to plan for a future that fulfills your ambitions and your aspirations. In line with his instructions, we will work tirelessly from today to build a better tomorrow for you, your children, and your children’s children.

»Our ambition is for the long term. It goes beyond replenishing sources of income that have weakened or preserving what we have already achieved. We are determined to build a thriving country in which all citizens can fulfill their dreams, hopes and ambitions.

»Therefore, we will not rest until our nation is a leader in providing opportunities for all through education and training, and high quality services such as employment initiatives, health, housing, and entertainment. We commit ourselves to providing world-class government services which effectively and efficiently meet the needs of our citizens. Together we will continue building a better country, fulfilling our dream of prosperity and unlocking the talent, potential, and dedication of our young men and women. We will not allow our country ever to be at the mercy of a commodity price volatility or external markets.

»We have all the means to achieve our dreams and ambitions. There are no excuses for us to stand still or move backwards.

»Our Vision is a strong, thriving, and stable Saudi Arabia that provides opportunity for all. Our Vision is a tolerant country with Islam as its constitution and moderation as its method. We will welcome qualified individuals from all over the world and will respect those who have come to join our journey and our success.

»We intend to provide better opportunities for partnerships with the private sector through the three pillars: our position as the heart of the Arab and Islamic worlds, our leading investment capabilities, and our strategic geographical position. We will improve the business environment, so that our economy grows and flourishes, driving healthier employment opportunities for citizens and long-term prosperity for all. This promise is built on cooperation and on mutual responsibility.

»This is our “Saudi Arabia’s Vision for 2030.” We will begin immediately delivering the overarching plans and programs we have set out. Together, with the help of Allah, we can strengthen the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia’s position as a great nation in which we should all feel an immense pride.»




A Vibrant Society.. with Strong Roots

A Vibrant Society.. with Fulfilling Lives

A Vibrant Society.. with Strong Foundations


A Thriving Economy.. Rewarding Opportunities

A Thriving Economy.. Investing for the Long-term

A Thriving Economy.. Open for Business

A Thriving Economy.. Leveraging its Unique Position


An Ambitious Nation.. Effectively Governed

An Ambitious Nation.. Responsibly Enabled



Development of State of the Art-Techniques in Cement Manufacturing: Trying to Look Ahead. CSI/ECRA Technology Papers 2017 | Cement Sustainability Initiative (CSI) (‎@CementCSI): European Cement Research Academy (ECRA). World Business Council for Sustainable Developement (WBCSD) (@wbcsd)


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«Introduction and objectives

»In 2009 the World Business Council for Sustainable Development and the International Energy Agency published a report named the Cement Technology Roadmap which outlined a perspective for the cement sector to achieve long-term CO2 reduction targets by 2050. This roadmap was based on the CSI/ECRA Technology Papers 2009. Both the Cement Technology Roadmap and the Technology Papers have been used for discussions on the technical potentials for innovation and low carbon development in the cement sector worldwide. In particular, several regional roadmaps for India, Europe, Brazil, and Egypt have made intensive use of these international reference documents.

»In 2017 the Cement Sustainability Initiative (CSI) decided to initiate a project together with the European Cement Research Academy (ECRA) to update the perspective of available technologies for CO2 abatement and energy efficiency in the cement sector. This decision was taken in the light of the discussion and ratification of the Paris Agreement of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) for the reduction of global warming, a pathway towards low greenhouse gas emissions and climate-resilient development.

»Furthermore, this update was intended to incorporate information on alternative material and fuel use in the cement industry and to form a new basis for the Energy Technology Perspective (ETP) modelling project of the International Energy Agency (IEA). CSI offered to provide the technology papers, which contain the description of energy saving and CO2 reducing technologies, their costs in typical future cement plants, their energy saving and CO2 reduction potentials, boundaries and limitations, and the timeline for implementation. CSI commissioned the European Cement Research Academy (ECRA) to propose a list of relevant updates and amendments of new technologies which should be considered and to prepare the updated technology papers. Based on their update and the enhancement of the technology perspective it is intended that the CSI/ECRA technology papers 2017 can again serve as important reference documents for developing further technology roadmaps in the cement sector.

»The roadmaps for the cement industry shall identify major barriers, opportunities and policy measures for policy makers, industry and financial partners in order to accelerate the research and development of technologies aiming at increasing energy efficiency and reducing greenhouse gas emissions. Such roadmaps shall be agreed by relevant stakeholders such as industry, governments etc.

»The present report comprises 52 technology papers as well as 7 so-called state-of-the-art papers. The state-of-theart papers summarise the expected development in the major technological fields, which are thermal energy efficiency, electric energy efficiency, use of alternative fuels, materials and biomass, reduction of the clinker content in cement, new binding materials, CO2 capture and storage (CCS), and CO2 use (CCU).

»The experience of cement companies joining the Cement Sustainability Initiative (CSI) indicates the importance of systematically assessing the technological potentials for improvement on energy efficiency and CO2 emissions and of monitoring achieved progress by a standardised methodology. Therefore, CSI has developed since the year 2000 “The Cement CO2 and Energy Protocol”. It is publically available from the CSI website together with tools for its application by cement companies (www.wbcsdcement.org/CO2Protocol). CSI is relgularly collecting relevant data based on this protocol in its project “Getting the numbers right” (GNR) and presents global and regional results for information to stakeholders.

»It was agreed that in the CSI/ECRA Technology papers 2017 estimations concerning the reduction potential and cost shall be related to a reference plant. This reference plant is described based on the most recent data of the CSI GNR-2014 in which technical data from more than 900 cement installations worldwide have been collected. The global average data of all cement plants have been used to define the “typical” cement plant of today.

»As in the technology papers of 2009, the plant has a clinker capacity of 2 Mio. tonnes per year or 6,000 tonnes per day. In line with the GNR-2014 data an emission intensity of 842 kg CO2/t clinker and a clinker/cement ratio of 75% are assumed. The key assumptions as well as the data of the reference plant are summarised in the annex of this report. All calculations and assumptions relate to these plants, if not stated otherwise. Investment cost data relate to Central European prices and have to be adapted for other regions in the world, like China, India or Latin America. Fuel and electrical energy cost data is based on information from the 2016 ETP-modelling exercise of the IEA.

»The estimations and information given for the future years 2030 and 2050 are based on today’s technical knowledge, assumptions on further development, literature and internet data, and the experts’ knowledge available in the European Cement Research Academy.

»Düsseldorf, 20 March 2017
European Cement Research Academy (ECRA) GmbH

Index of Contents

1 Introduction and objectives

2 State of the art

2.1 State-of-the-art Paper No. 1: Thermal efficiency of cement production: State of the art and long-term perspective

2.2 State-of-the-art Paper No. 2: Electric efficiency of cement production: State of the art and long-term perspective

2.3 State-of-the-art Paper No. 3: Alternative fuels, raw materials and biomassused in the cement industry: Long-term perspective

2.4 State-of-the-art Paper No. 4: Reduction of clinker content in cement: Long term perspective

2.5 State-of-the-art Paper No. 5: New binding materials: Long-term perspective for application in the cement industry

2.6 State-of-the-art Paper No. 6: Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS): Longterm perspective for application in the cement industry

2.7 State-of-the-art Paper No. 7: Carbon Capture and Use (CCU): Long-term perspective for application in the cement industry

3 Technology Papers

3.1 Technology Paper No. 1: Improve raw mix burnability, e.g. by mineralisers

3.2 Technology Paper No. 2: Change from long kilns to preheater/precalciner kilns

3.3 Technology Paper No. 3: Preheater modification (e.g. cyclones with lower pressure drop)

3.4 Technology Paper No. 4: Additional preheater cyclone stage(s)

3.5 Technology Paper No. 5: Increase of kiln capacity

3.6 Technology Paper No. 6: Retrofit mono-channel burner to modern multichannel burner

3.7 Technology Paper No. 7: Oxygen enrichment technology

3.8 Technology Paper No. 8: Efficient clinker cooler technology

3.9 Technology Paper No. 9: Waste heat recovery: Steam

3.10 Technology Paper No. 10: Waste heat recovery: ORC

3.11 Technology Paper No. 11: Waste heat recovery: Kalina Cycle

3.12 Technology Paper No. 12: Alternative de-carbonated raw materials for clinker production

3.13 Technology Paper No. 13: Fuel switching (coal/petcoke --> oil/gas/pure biomass)

3.14 Technology Paper No. 14: Alternative fuels (including biomass) replacing conventional fossil fuels

3.15 Technology Paper No. 15: Pre-treatment of alternative fuel (grinding, drying)

3.16 Technology Paper No. 16: Gasification or pre-combustion of alternative fuels

3.17 Technology Paper No. 17: Hydrothermal Carbonisation (HTC) and Torrefaction

3.18 Technology Paper No. 18: Upgrade plant automation/control package

3.19 Technology Paper No. 19: Variable speed drives

3.20 Technology Paper No. 20: Auxiliary system efficiency

3.21 Technology Paper No. 21: Energy management

3.22 Technology Paper No. 22: Optimised cement plant operation with renewable power

3.23 Technology Paper No. 23: Cement grinding with vertical roller mills and roller presses v3.24 Technology Paper No. 24: High efficiency separators

3.25 Technology Paper No. 25: Optimisation of operating parameters of ball mills

3.26 Technology Paper No. 26: Separate grinding of raw material components

3.27 Technology Paper No. 27: Advanced grinding technology

3.28 Technology Paper No. 28: Separate grinding and blending by fineness

3.29 Technology Paper No. 29: Increased cement performance by optimised particle size distribution (PSD)

3.30 Technology Paper No. 30: Optimised use of grinding aids

3.31 Technology Paper No. 31: Further reduction of clinker content in cement by use of granulated blast furnace slag

3.32 Technology Paper No. 32: High performance cements and concretes resulting in the reduction of CO2

3.33 Technology Paper No. 33: Impact of very high/very low lime saturation factor

3.34 Technology Paper No. 34: Further reduction of clinker content in cement by use of fly ash

3.35 Technology Paper No. 35: Further reduction of clinker content in cement by use of natural pozzolanas

3.36 Technology Paper No. 36: Further reduction of clinker content in cement by use of natural calcined pozzolanas

3.37 Technology Paper No. 37: Further reduction of clinker content in cement by use of other materials

3.38 Technology Paper No. 38: Alkali-activated binders

3.39 Technology Paper No. 39: Cements based on carbonation of calciumsilicates

3.40 Technology Paper No. 40: Other low carbonate clinkers: pre-hydrated calcium silicates

3.41 Technology Paper No. 41: Other low carbonate cements - Belite cements

3.42 Technology Paper No. 42: Other low carbonate clinkers: (belite) calcium sulfoaluminate clinker

3.43 Technology Paper No. 43: Oxyfuel Technology

3.44 Technology Paper No. 44: Post-combustion capture using absorption technologies

3.45 Technology Paper No. 45: Post-combustion capture using membrane processes

3.46 Technology Paper No. 46: Post-combustion capture using solid sorbents: Ca looping

3.47 Technology Paper No. 47: Post-combustion capture using solid sorbents: Mineral carbonation

3.48 Technology Paper No. 48: CO2 use: Basic chemicals, urea, formic acid, polymers

3.49 Technology Paper No. 49: CO2 use: Power-to-gas (CH4)

3.50 Technology Paper No. 50: CO2 use: Power-to-liquids (CH3OH)

3.51 Technology Paper No. 51: CO2 use: Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR)

3.52 Technology Paper No. 52: CO2 use: Algae capture and fuel production, biofuels

4 Annex I: Key assumptions

5 Annex II: Performance data of reference plant and used cost figures

6 Annex III: References

7 Annex IV: List of new developed and updated papers


African Economic Outlook (AEO) 2017. Entrepreneurship and Industrialization | African Development Bank (@AfDB_Group), OECD Development Centre (@OECD_Centre) and United Nations Development Programme (@pnudfr)

Info: AEO 2017, and theme 2017: Entrepreneurship and Industrialization. 16th edition of the African Economic Outlook.

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«Entrepreneurship and Industrialization

»The 16th edition of the African Economic Outlook highlights the fact that Africa’s economic performance is reflecting the perils of the global economy.

»The entrepreneurial culture is vibrant with about 80% of Africans viewing entrepreneurship as a good career opportunity. The continent has the highest share in the world of adults starting or running new businesses, but often in sectors where productivity remains low. New industrialisation strategies should focus on leveraging this dynamism and targeting the continent’s fast-growing private enterprises which have potential to create quality jobs.

»Promoting industrialisation is back on Africa’s economic policy agenda, with renewed impetus and vigour. Industrialisation in 21st century Africa calls for innovative strategies embracing all the potential of its 54 countries. First, innovative industrialisation strategies should go beyond sectoral approaches that target only manufacturing. Africa can industrialise by promoting all economic sectors that have potential for high growth and employment creation. Second, strategies should include high-potential entrepreneurs. Start-ups and small and medium-sized firms with high-potential can complement the growth of large companies in driving Africa’s industrialisation. Finally, policies must promote “green industrialisation” with lower environmental costs. Industrial policies must adapt lessons from countries that have already developed a strong industrial base to the distinct African context. Innovative peer learning is critical to the new wave of industrialisation in Africa.

»How can African governments design and implement effective industrialisation strategies? About half of the African countries have strategies for industrial development which aim to create labour-intensive industries to enhance job growth. However, these blueprints often do not address the needs of firms that have high growth potential. Capacity to implement policies is also weak, often resulting in conflicting mandates across different government agencies. Governments should design strategies that remove the existing binding constraints on high-potential entrepreneurs. Implementing productivity strategies requires full commitment, strong and far-sighted political leadership, efficient government co-ordination and active private-sector participation. Involving local governments can help tailor industrial policies to firms’ needs. Finally, evaluating policies and their impacts is key to ensuring the success of industrial policies.

»The report’s final chapter tackles three particularly important policy areas to ease the constraints that most entrepreneurs in Africa are confronted with. First, to strengthen skills, there is need for public policies that prioritise formal education, apprenticeships, vocational training and managerial capabilities in order to meet labour market needs. Second, policies that support business clusters can help raise the productivity and growth of firms, including smaller ones. Third, financial market policies can increase firms’ access to innovative and tailored sources of finance.»

«Executive Summary

»The African Economic Outlook (AEO) 2017 shows that the continent’s performance was uneven in 2016 in regard to economic, social and governance indicators, but prospects are favourable for 2017 and 2018. This year’s edition of the AEO looks closely at how African entrepreneurs can thus accelerate the continent’s industrialisation to change the course of development and discusses the policies necessary to foster more sustainable and inclusive growth.

»Africa continued to experience regional and global headwinds in 2016, resulting in a further slowdown in growth performance. This notwithstanding, the outlook for the medium term is positive. The decline in economic growth posted in 2016 is attributed to several factors: low commodity prices, a sluggish performance in the global economy, a gradual deceleration in China’s growth and second-order effects of the Arab Spring, amplified by the prolonged conflict in Libya. While Africa’s net commodity exporters faced a difficult year, the majority of the continent’s non-commodity exporting countries continued to grow, consolidating previous years’ gains. Fiscal, monetary and exchange rate policies varied across the continent. Countries with co-ordinated policies were able to better withstand shocks.

»In 2017 and 2018, Africa will benefit from commodity prices which started to rise in the latter part of 2016, increasing private demand including in domestic markets, sound macroeconomic policy management now entrenched in many countries, a generally improving and favourable business environment, and a more diversified economic structure, particularly towards the services sector and light manufacturing. Although current account deficits are expected to persist in 2017, they will be narrower compared to 2016, if the recent rise in commodity prices continues. The index of commodity prices was more than a quarter higher at the end of 2016 relative to the same period in 2015. Countries with more predictable policies and buffers should therefore be able to weather the storm in the wake of destabilising external imbalances.

»In 2017, total external flows are expected to reach USD 179.7 billion, up from USD 177.7 billion in 2016, with foreign direct investment (FDI) and remittances remaining Africa’s most important external financial sources. Total FDI is projected to be USD 57.5 billion thanks to inflows from the Far and Middle East. Investments are diversifying into consumer goods and services, such as financial services and information and telecommunications. Remittances are projected to increase to USD 66.2 billion in 2017, 2.4% higher than the previous year. While more and better aid will remain crucial for low-income and fragile economies, private flows will play an increasingly important role to mobilise finance and to spur local development and entrepreneurship. Despite significant efforts to increase fiscal revenues, these still fall short of Africa’s financing needs.

»Africa has enjoyed advances in trade and regional integration, but the volume of intra-Africa trade remains low. Over the past two decades, the value of trade between Africa and the world has quadrupled. Today the continent’s trading partners are also more geographically diverse, and regional co-operation is building momentum. This is because African countries have adopted more open policies, invested in infrastructure and continued to pursue regional integration. These achievements ease business by reducing the costs and time required to move goods and services within countries and across borders; they also increase the continent’s appeal as a partner in global trade. Moving forward, Africa should first diversify its exports to reduce exposure to commodity price shocks. Second, it should better tap the capacity of intra-Africa trade. Finally, governments should now focus on moving regional integration initiatives forward.

»Eighteen African countries have achieved medium to high human development, and the share of people living in poverty is falling. However, progress in human development is slow and uneven. Employment creation and entrepreneurship can help in reducing poverty. Governments can achieve these by addressing barriers to entrepreneurship such as informality, fragility, and constrained business opportunities for the youth and women. By harnessing better education, skills and health, engaging the youth and women, and promoting sustainable use of environmental resources, Africa can better respect its commitments to the Sustainable Development Goals and Agenda 2063.

»In terms of political and economic governance, the most recent data show improvements in Africa but also challenges to overcome. Governments are using public resources more efficiently and delivering more social services, thanks to regulatory reforms and digital innovations. They are also working to enhance the quality of the business environment to catalyse private sector investment. Yet, many Africans still expect greater economic opportunities than they are currently obtaining. To support businesses and foster innovation, governments need to expand access to electricity and financing and to improve competition policies. Furthermore, commitment to accountability within key policy-making institutions remains below citizens’ expectations. The same is true of the performance of public administrations.

»Promoting industrialisation is back on Africa’s economic policy agenda, with renewed impetus and vigour. Industrialisation in 21st century Africa calls for innovative strategies embracing all the potential of its 54 countries. First, innovative industrialisation strategies should go beyond sectoral approaches that target only manufacturing. Africa can industrialise by promoting all economic sectors that have potential for high growth and employment creation. Second, strategies should include high-potential entrepreneurs. Start-ups and small and medium-sized firms with high-potential can complement the growth of large companies in driving Africa’s industrialisation. Finally, policies must promote “green industrialisation” with lower environmental costs. Industrial policies must adapt lessons from countries that have already developed a strong industrial base to the distinct African context. Innovative peer learning is critical to the new wave of industrialisation in Africa.

»How can African governments design and implement effective industrialisation strategies? About half of the African countries have strategies for industrial development which aim to create labour-intensive industries to enhance job growth. However, these blueprints often do not address the needs of firms that have high growth potential. Capacity to implement policies is also weak, often resulting in conflicting mandates across different government agencies. Governments should design strategies that remove the existing binding constraints on high-potential entrepreneurs. Implementing productivity strategies requires full commitment, strong and far-sighted political leadership, efficient government co-ordination and active private-sector participation. Involving local governments can help tailor industrial policies to firms’ needs. Finally, evaluating policies and their impacts is key to ensuring the success of industrial policies.

»The report’s final chapter tackles three particularly important policy areas to ease the constraints that most entrepreneurs in Africa are confronted with. First, to strengthen skills, there is need for public policies that prioritise formal education, apprenticeships, vocational training and managerial capabilities in order to meet labour market needs. Second, policies that support business clusters can help raise the productivity and growth of firms, including smaller ones. Third, financial market policies can increase firms’ access to innovative and tailored sources of finance.»

Table of contents

Executive summary


Chapter 1. Africa’s macroeconomic prospects

In brief

Africa’s growth resilience has been tested, but a basis for stronger future growth exists

Domestic demand is becoming increasingly important as a driver of growth

More diversified economies are better performers regionally

Policy co-ordination and consistency are important cushions against shocks

External imbalances are inherently associated with policy uncertainties

Annex 1.A1. External balance and policy uncertainty in Africa


Chapter 2. External financial flows and tax revenues for Africa

In brief

Private flows play an increasingly important role in the external financial landscape

Investments to Africa are returning to a growth path

Remittances can spur investment and leverage entrepreneurship

Official development assistance to African countries is still below commitments

Domestic revenue mobilisation still falls short of needs



Chapter 3. Trade policies and regional integration in Africa

In brief

Africa’s trade has grown but it seeks more products

Trade between African countries holds the key to sustainable economic development

Global economic developments are likely to have varying effects on trade with Africa

Africa’s regional communities champion trade policies and integration and face challenges

Regional integration success requires action on supply and demand limitations



Chapter 4. Human development in Africa

In brief

Human development is both a means and an end

The state of human development in Africa shows positive results despite global shocks

Harnessing Africa’s demographic dividend requires investing in skills and innovation

Investing in health and nutrition remains a critical priority to underpin productivity, growth and resilience

Africa’s common strategic vision for human development to enable entrepreneurship



Chapter 5. Political and economic governance in Africa

In brief

The most recent data on governance in Africa shows growing demands for better economic opportunities and more accountability

The current capacity and credibility of public institutions to improve policy responses are below expectations and consequently have limited credibility

A review of recent policy initiatives shows good examples of achieving results in public service delivery, but this must be built on moving forward



Chapter 6. Improving entrepreneurship for industrialisation in Africa

In brief

Industrialisation is back on Africa’s economic policy agenda

Africa’s industrialisation calls for innovative strategies

African entrepreneurs offer high but untapped potential for industrialisation

Annex 6.A1. Evolution of value added of total industry and of manufacturing in selected African countries, 1990-2015

Annex 6.A2. Availability of the Global Entrepreneurship Monitor database for African countries, 2011-16



Chapter 7. Designing, carrying out and assessing Africa’s industrialisation strategies

In brief

Governments can design industrialisation strategies to promote entrepreneurship Carrying out and assessing industrialisation strategies remain challenges

Annex 7.A1. Impacts of entrepreneurship programmes in Africa



Chapter 8. Policies to promote entrepreneurship for Africa’s industrialization

In brief

Policies that facilitate business for entrepreneurs are crucial for Africa’s industrialisation

Improving skills is essential to strengthen Africa’s entrepreneurial capacity

Business clusters can help African firms grow

Diversified financing solutions can channel resources to African entrepreneurs

Annex 8.A1. Active start-up incubators in Africa






Low carbon energy and feedstock for the European chemical industry | Alexis Michael Bazzanella and Florian Ausfelder, DECHEMA (Gesellschaft für Chemische Technik und Biotechnologie e.V.) (@DECHEMA) - European Chemical Industry Council (CEFIC) (@Cefic)


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»The chemical industry is an essential part of the modern societies we live in. By turning resources into valuable products and materials that enable many downstream value chains, the chemical industry delivers strong benefits and provides solutions to the grand societal challenges that the world needs to address in the 21st century.

»The impact of CO2 emissions is one of the most difficult challenges to be addressed. Virtually all human activities require energy and products that currently rely heavily on cheap and abundant fossil resources.

»The chemical industry is no exception. It requires energy for running its processes, and feedstock - most often carbon feedstock, eventually embedded in most chemical products and materials - resulting in CO2 emissions. However, the European chemical industry has a solid track record in reducing greenhouse gas emissions from its industrial operations. In addition, it delivers solutions to achieve major energy-savings in many value chains (e.g. construction with insulation materials, transportation with fuel-saving technologies and lightweight materials), with benefits in terms of CO2 emission reductions.

»The scope of this study is to analyse how the chemical industry could use breakthrough technologies to further reduce CO2 emissions resulting from the production of its key building blocks. The purpose of this study is to provide quantitative data on promising low carbon technologies, estimate their potential impact on CO2 emission reductions, and highlight the current technological and financial limitations and barriers.

»Promising technologies are available at a relatively advanced stage of development, however their implementation on a wide scale is hard to achieve under the current framework conditions, while we also need to safeguard the benefits and the global competitiveness of this key industrial sector in Europe. This shows the need for a concerted approach between public and private stakeholders to further support an ambitious research and innovation agenda, with a strong focus on industrial relevance. It also shows the need, more than ever, for a close dialogue between public and private stakeholders about the regulatory framework that will allow the shift in the long run.

»The study is a valuable input into the discussion on the future of the European chemical industry and the transition towards a carbon neutral society. Its key findings will hopefully foster a successful dialogue amongst key stakeholders.

»Marco Mensink (Director General Cefic) and Kurt Wagemann (Managing Director DECHEMA)»

Table of Content


Executive summary

Technical Summary

List of Tables

List of Figures

List of abbreviations

1 Introduction

1.1 Background

1.2 Scope of the study

1.2.1 Products included in the study

1.2.2 Technology options investigated

1.2.3 Scenario work in this study

1.3 Basic assumptions and data used

1.4 Definitions

2 Energy efficiency potentials

2.1 Incremental improvements

2.2 Implementation of best practice technologies

2.3 Advanced heat integration

2.4 Process-intensifying equipment

2.5 Impact of efficiency measures

3 Direct use of low-carbon electricity

3.1 Electricity based steam production (TRL7)

3.2 Advanced heat management via steam recompression (TRL 6-7)

3.3 Chlorine production (TRL 9)

3.3.1 Process scheme of chlorine production

3.3.2 Energy demand per unit of production

3.3.3 CO2 emission reduction per unit of chlorine production

3.3.4 Chlorine process economics

4 Hydrogen/CO2-based production routes

4.1 H2 production via low carbon emission routes

4.1.1 Electrolytic production of hydrogen Alkaline Electrolysis (TRL: 7-9) PEM-Electrolysis (TRL: 7-8) High-temperature solid-oxide electrolysis (TRL: 6-7) Water electrolysis technical performance and system cost Hydrogen production costs Electrolysers and future scale for chemical production Carbon footprint of hydrogen from low-carbon electricity

4.1.2 Alternative low carbon hydrogen production processes Methane pyrolysis (TRL 4-5) Thermochemical processes (TRL: 4) Photocatalytic processes (TRL: 2-3) Hydrogen from other industrial processes

4.2 Ammonia production from hydrogen

4.2.1 Conventional ammonia production (TRL 9)

4.2.2 Low-carbon ammonia production (TRL 7)

4.2.3 Energy demand per unit of ammonia production

4.2.4 CO2 reduction per unit of ammonia production

4.2.4 Economics of low-carbon ammonia production

4.2.5 Hybrid ammonia production

4.3 Downstream production of urea from low-carbon ammonia and CO2

4.3.1 Energy demand and CO2 reduction per unit of urea production

4.3.2 Economy of low-carbon urea production

4.4 Methanol production from hydrogen and CO2

4.4.1 Conventional methanol production (TRL 9)

4.4.2 Low-carbon methanol production (TRL 7)

4.4.3 Energy demand per unit of methanol production

4.4.4 CO2 reduction per unit of methanol production

4.4.5 Economics of low-carbon methanol production

4.5 Ethylene and propylene via hydrogen-based methanol (TRL 8-9)

4.5.1 Conventional ethylene and propylene production (TRL 9)

4.5.2 Low-carbon production of ethylene and propylene via MTO (TRL8-9)

4.5.3 Energy demand per unit of ethylene/propylene production via methanol

4.5.4 CO2 reduction per unit of ethylene/propylene production

4.5.5 Economics of low-carbon ethylene and propylene production

4.6 Benzene, toluene and xylenes via hydrogen-based methanol (TRL 7)

4.6.1 Conventional production of BTX [TRL9]

4.6.2 Low-carbon production of BTX via hydrogen-based methanol [TRL7]

4.6.3 Energy demand per unit of low-carbon BTX production

4.6.4 CO2 reduction per unit of low-carbon BTX production

4.6.5 Economics of low-carbon BTX production

4.7 Synthetic fuels from low-carbon hydrogen and CO2

4.7.1 Low-carbon methanol as a transport fuel CO2 reduction for (partially) replacing gasoline by methanol Economics of low-carbon methanol as fuel

4.7.2 Production of synthetic diesel and kerosene via hydrogen-based syngas and Fischer Tropsch synthesis (TRL 5-7) Energy demand per unit of synfuel production CO2 reduction per unit of synfuel production Economics of synthetic fuel production

4.8 Methane from hydrogen and CO2

4.8.1 Low-carbon methane/SNG production from hydrogen and CO2 (TRL 6-7) Electricity demand for of low-carbon SNG production CO2 reduction potential of low-carbon SNG production Economics of low-carbon SNG production

4.9 Comparison of the hydrogen based low-carbon synthesis routes

4.10 Availability of carbon dioxide as feedstock

5 Alternative synthesis pathways using CO2

6 Low-carbon chemical production based on biomass as feedstock

6.1 Biomethanol production [TRL 6-7]

6.1.1 Biomethanol production process

6.1.2 Energy and feedstock demand per unit of biomethanol production

6.1.3 CO2 reduction per unit of biomethanol production

6.1.4 Economics of biomethanol production

6.2 Bioethanol production [TRL7-9]

6.2.2 Bioethanol production process

6.2.3 Energy and feedstock demand per unit of bioethanol production

6.2.4 CO2 reduction per unit of bioethanol production

6.2.5 CO2 reduction for (partially) replacing gasoline by bioethanol

6.2.6 Economics of bioethanol production

6.3 Bioethylene production [TRL8-9]

6.3.1 Bioethylene production process

6.3.2 Energy and feedstock demand per unit of bioethylene production

6.3.3 CO2 reduction per unit of bioethylene production

6.3.4 Economics of bioethylene production

6.4 Biopropylene production [TRL 6-7]

6.4.2 Biopropylene production processes

6.4.3 Energy and feedstock demand per unit of biopropylene production

6.4.4 CO2 reduction per unit of biopropylene production

6.5 BTX production from biomass [TRL6-7]

6.5.1 BTX production process

6.5.2 Energy and feedstock demand per unit of BTX production from biomass

6.5.3 CO2 emissions per unit of BTX production from biomass

6.6 Comparison of the biomass-based synthesis routes

6.7 Available biomass feedstocks

7 Valorization of gaseous emissions and side streams of other sectors (Industrial symbiosis)

7.1 Sources of CO2

7.2 Steel manufacturing as a sources of hydrogen, CO and CO2/CO mixed streams

7.2.1 Use of steel manufacturing off-gases for ethanol production

7.3 Other industrial symbiosis opportunities

8 Recycling and polymer waste as feedstock for the chemical industry

9 Scenarios describing a low-carbon chemical industry

9.1 Business as usual

9.1.1 Volume of chemical production

9.1.2 CO2 emissions BAU

9.2 Maximum scenario

9.2.1 Max scenario: production volumes

9.2.2 Max scenario: CO2 emission reduction

9.3 Intermediate scenario

9.3.1 Intermediate scenario: low-carbon production volumes

9.3.2 Intermediate scenario: CO2 emission reduction

9.4 Ambitious scenario

9.4.1 Ambitious scenario: low-carbon production volumes

9.4.2 Ambitious scenario: CO2 emission reduction

9.5 Summary production volumes and CO2 reduction potentials for the scenarios

10 Energy and feedstock demand of the different scenarios

10.1 Demand for carbon free electricity

10.2 Demand for CO2 as feedstock

10.3 Biomass as feedstock demand

11 Economic implications of the scenarios

11.1 Production Costs

11.2 Total production costs and CO2 avoidance costs for individual chemical products

11.2.1 Ammonia

11.2.2 Chlorine production

11.1.3 Urea

11.1.4 Methanol

11.1.4 Ethylene, propylene and BTX

11.2 Summary and impact of policy measures

12 Research, development and innovation requirements

13 Policy measures

14 Transformation of the European Chemical Industry

14.1 Current energy supply, feedstock base and carbon-flows of the European chemical industry

14.2 Energy supply, feedstock base and carbon-flows of the European chemical industry in the BAU scenario

14.3 Energy supply, feedstock base and carbon-flows of the European chemical industryin the Intermediate scenario

14.4 Energy supply, feedstock base and carbon-flows of the European chemical industry in the Ambitious scenario

14.5 Energy supply, feedstock base and carbon-flows of the European chemical industry in the Maximum scenario

15 Acknowledgement

16 Annexes

Annex 1: Assumptions for calculation of hydrogen cost as function of the operating hours

Annex 2: Assumptions scenario work

Annex 3: Annual assumptions, impact and demand figures for the intermediate scenario

Annex 4: Annual assumptions, impact and demand figures for the Amb scenario

Annex 5: Annual assumptions, impact and demand figures for the Max scenario

Annex 6: CO2 capture technologies




The Future of London. 2050 | Published by Bright Blue (@WeAreBrightBlue) and Localis (@Localis)

VV.AA. Edited by Ryan Shorthouse and Liam Booth-Smith.

Info: Localis

Document (pdf)



Foreword. Mark Boleat

Introduction. Ryan Shorthouse and Liam Booth-Smith

Growing London

1 Upwards, downwards and outwards. The Rt Hon Boris Johnson MP

2 Politicians cannot be complacent about the City. Gillian Tett

3 A technological revolution? Gerard Grech

4 Keeping London moving. Sir Peter Hendy CBE

5 A new innovation cluster. Professor Michael Arthur

6 London the city state? Professor Tony Travers

Living London

7 An environment fit for Londoners. Michael Liebreich

8 Good growth. Sir Terry Farrell CBE

9 Culture capital. Sir Peter Bazalgette

10 A city that works flexibly. Justine Roberts

Fairer London

11 The world’s most socially mobile city. The Rt Hon Alan Milburn

12 A city of communities? Matthew Taylor

13 A view from 2050: did London share the wealth? Gavin Kelly

«Over the past thirty years, London has become the capital of capitalism and the epicentre of global culture. But, especially since the result of the EU referendum, there are big challenges ahead. This essay collection starts the conversation on how London can keep a step ahead of rival cities in the decades ahead.

»Influential and talented people come together to outline an original action plan and vision for London in 2050 across a range of fields - from education and the environment to culture and commerce.»


Earth Observations in support of the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development | GEO (Group on Earth Observations) (@GEOSEC2025)

Info: GEO

Document (pdf)


1 Introduction

2 Earth Observations for the SDGs

3 Case Studies

Group on Earth Observations Global Agricultural Monitoring (GEOGLAM)

Algal Bloom Early Warning Alert System

Flood Prediction System Using the Global Satellite Map of Precipitation (GSMaP)

Global Mangrove Watch – Mapping Extent and Annual Changes in the Global Mangrove Cover

Earth Observation for Water-related Ecosystem Monitoring

Mapping Urban Growth

Air Pollution Monitoring for Sustainable Cities and Human Settlements

Using Remote Sensing for Water Quality Monitoring of the Great Barrier Reef

Mapping Forest Cover Extent and Change, and Progressing Sustainable Forest Management

The Global Forest Observations Initiative and Space Agency Support to Forest Monitoring

Efforts Targeting Land Degradation to Achieve Neutrality

4 Opportunities and Challenges

5 Conclusions and More Information




Flightpath 2050 Europe’s Vision for Aviation | European Commission. Directorate-General for Research and Innovation. High Level Group (HLG) on Aviation and Aeronautics Research

Info: EU High Level Group (HLG) on Aviation and Aeronautics Research

Document (pdf)

Table of contents

Aviation – an invaluable asset for Europe

The European Aviation Vision 2050

Highly ambitious goals

European air transport in 2050

Meeting societal & market needs

Maintaining and extending industrial leadership

Protecting the environment and the energy supply

Ensuring safety and security

Prioritising research, testing capabilities & education

Achieving the Vision

A research and innovation friendly environment for Europe

From Vision to the Research Agenda


»Europe is entering a new age where it faces many challenges such as globalisation, a financial system in need of reform, climate change and an increasing scarcity of resources.

»This is why the European air transport system is directly concerned by new challenges regarding its competitiveness, performance and sustainability. The European manufacturing and service industry is strongly affected by globalisation, new competitors, new markets and the need for innovation. Sustainable mobility is at stake, as are millions of jobs and billions of Euros of added value. Research and innovation are key to maintaining Europe’s capacities and competitiveness and it is time to align efforts towards a new long-term vision for this sector.

»We invited key stakeholders of European aviation from the aeronautics industry, air traffic management, airports, airlines, energy providers and the research community to come together in a High Level Group to develop a vision for Europe’s aviation system and industry by 2050. The aviation community responded enthusiastically and produced this important document which focuses on two main challenges: meeting the needs of our citizens and the market as well as maintaining global leadership.

»The strategy addresses customer orientation and market needs as well as industrial competitiveness and the need to maintain an adequate skills and research infrastructure base in Europe. By 2050, passengers and freight should enjoy efficient and seamless travel services, based on a resilient air transport system thoroughly integrated with other transport modes and well connected to the rest of the world. This will be necessary in order to meet the growing demand for travel and to cope more easily with unforeseeable events.

»It should also help to reduce aviation’s impact on citizens and the environment. Aviation has an important role to play in reducing noise as well as greenhouse gas emissions, regardless of traffic growth. Aviation must move towards more sustainable energy sources. It should live up to the highest levels of safety and security to ensure that passengers and freight as well as the air transport system and its infrastructure are protected.

»The vision set out in this document stresses the need for an innovation friendly environment relying on strong, sustainable and coherent investment in research and innovation and enhanced governance, funding and financing structures.

»Research, technology and innovation are essential catalysts for a competitive and sustainable future and we need to start quickly to be effective. This document setting out a European vision for the future of aviation emphasises where those working in aviation see the priorities for the relevant policy, research and innovation instruments. It is a high-level vision of Europe leading with an aviation industry that is clean, competitive, safe and secure.

»Siim Kallas, Vice-President of the European Commission and Commissioner for Transport, and Máire Geoghegan-Quinn, Commissioner for Research, Innovation and Science»


The future of food and agriculture. Trends and challenges | Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) of the United Nations (UN) (@FAOnews)

Info: FAO

Document (pdf)





Executive summary


1 Population growth, urbanization and ageing

2 Global economic growth, investment, trade and food prices

3 Competition for natural resources

4 Climate change

5 Agricultural productivity and innovation

6 Transboundary pests and diseases

7 Conflicts, crises and natural disasters

8 Poverty, inequality and food insecurity

9 Nutrition and health

10 Structural change and employment

11 Migration and agriculture

12 Changing food systems

13 Food losses and waste

14 Governance for food and nutrition security

15 Development finance


1 Sustainably improving agricultural productivity to meet increasing demand

2 Ensuring a sustainable natural resource base

3 Addressing climate change and intensification of natural hazards

4 Eradicating extreme poverty and reducing inequality

5 Ending hunger and all forms of malnutrition

6 Making food systems more efficient, inclusive and resilient

7 Improving income earning opportunities in rural areas and addressing the root causes of migration

8 Building resilience to protracted crises, disasters and conflicts

9 Preventing transboundary and emerging agriculture and food system threats

10 Addressing the need for coherent and effective national and international governance

ANNEX - International frameworks of relevance to FAO’s work and mandates


«Executive summary


»A number of global trends are influencing food security, poverty and the overall sustainability of food and agricultural systems.

»The world’s population is expected to grow to almost 10 billion by 2050, boosting agricultural demand – in a scenario of modest economic growth – by some 50 percent compared to 2013. Income growth in low- and middle-income countries would hasten a dietary transition towards higher consumption of meat, fruits and vegetables, relative to that of cereals, requiring commensurate shifts in output and adding pressure on natural resources.

»Economic growth and population dynamics are driving the structural change of economies.

»The decline in the share of agriculture in total production and employment is taking place at different speeds and poses different challenges across regions. Although agricultural investments and technological innovations are boosting productivity, growth of yields has slowed to rates that are too low for comfort. Food losses and waste claim a significant proportion of agricultural output, and reducing them would lessen the need for production increases. However, the needed acceleration in productivity growth is hampered by the degradation of natural resources, the loss of biodiversity, and the spread of transboundary pests and diseases of plants and animals, some of which are becoming resistant to antimicrobials.

»Climate change affects disproportionately food-insecure regions, jeopardizing crop and livestock production, fish stocks and fisheries.

»Satisfying increased demands on agriculture with existing farming practices is likely to lead to more intense competition for natural resources, increased greenhouse gas emissions, and further deforestation and land degradation.

»Hunger and extreme poverty have been reduced globally since the 1990s.

»Yet, around 700 million people, most of them living in rural areas, are still extremely poor today. In addition, despite undeniable progress in reducing rates of undernourishment and improving levels of nutrition and health, almost 800 million people are chronically hungry and 2 billion suffer micronutrient deficiencies. Under a ‘business-as-usual’ scenario, without additional efforts to promote pro-poor development, some 653 million people would still be undernourished in 2030. Even where poverty has been reduced, pervasive inequalities remain, hindering poverty eradication.

»Critical parts of food systems are becoming more capital-intensive, vertically integrated and concentrated in fewer hands.

»This is happening from input provisioning to food distribution. Smallscale producers and landless households are the first to lose out and increasingly seek employment opportunities outside of agriculture. This is driving increased migratory flows, especially of male members of rural households, which is leading, in turn, to the ‘feminization’ of farming in many parts of the world.

»Conflicts, crises and natural disasters are increasing in number and intensity.

»They reduce food availability, disrupt access to food and health care, and undermine social protection systems, pushing many affected people back into poverty and hunger, fuelling distress migration and increasing the need for humanitarian aid. Violent conflict also frequently characterizes protracted crises. On average, the proportion of undernourished people living in low-income countries with a protracted crisis is between 2.5 and 3 times higher than in other low-income countries.


»These trends pose a series of challenges to food and agriculture.

»High-input, resource-intensive farming systems, which have caused massive deforestation, water scarcities, soil depletion and high levels of greenhouse gas emissions, cannot deliver sustainable food and agricultural production. Needed are innovative systems that protect and enhance the natural resource base, while increasing productivity. Needed is a transformative process towards ‘holistic’ approaches, such as agroecology, agro-forestry, climate-smart agriculture and conservation agriculture, which also build upon indigenous and traditional knowledge. Technological improvements, along with drastic cuts in economy-wide and agricultural fossil fuel use, would help address climate change and the intensification of natural hazards, which affect all ecosystems and every aspect of human life. Greater international collaboration is needed to prevent emerging transboundary agriculture and food system threats, such as pests and diseases.

»Eradicating extreme poverty, and ensuring that vulnerable people who escape poverty do not fall back into it, requires action to reduce inequalities.

»That means addressing inequalities both between and within countries, in levels of income, in opportunities and in ownership of assets, including land. Pro-poor growth strategies, which ensure that the weakest participate in the benefits of market integration and investment in agriculture, would improve their income and investment opportunities in rural areas and address the root causes of migration.

»But pro-poor growth must go beyond agriculture, by involving both rural and urban areas and supporting job creation and income diversification.

»Social protection combined with pro-poor growth will help meet the challenge of ending hunger and addressing the triple burden of malnutrition through healthier diets. Permanently eliminating hunger, malnutrition and extreme poverty also requires building resilience to protracted crises, disasters and conflicts, and preventing conflicts by promoting inclusive and equitable global development.

»A rethinking of food systems and governance is essential for meeting current and future challenges.

»Vertically coordinated, more organized food systems offer standardized food for urban areas and formal employment opportunities. But they need to be accompanied by responsible investments and concern for smallholder livelihoods, the environmental footprint of lengthening food supply chains, and impacts on biodiversity. These concerns need to be addressed by making food systems more efficient, inclusive and resilient.

»On the path to sustainable development, all countries are interdependent.

»One of the greatest challenges is achieving coherent, effective national and international governance, with clear development objectives and commitment to achieving them. The 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development embodies such a vision – one that goes beyond the divide of ‘developed’ and ‘developing’ countries. Sustainable development is a universal challenge and the collective responsibility for all countries, requiring fundamental changes in the way all societies produce and consume.»


Vietnam 2035. Toward Prosperity, Creativity, Equity, and Democracy | World Bank (@WorldBank) and Ministry of Planning and Investment of Vietnam (#mpi.gov.vn)

Info: The World Bank

Document (pdf)



Preface and Acknowledgments

Executive Summary


Part I Overview

Vietnam 2035: Toward Prosperity, Creativity, Equity, and Democracy


Pillar 1 Economic Prosperity with Environmental Sustainability

Pillar 2 Equity and Social Inclusion

Pillar 3 A Capable and Accountable State

Summary and Conclusions

Part II Background Chapters

1 Thirty Years of Renovation and Vietnam’s Aspirations for 2035

Main Messages

Ðổi Mới: Motivation, Process, and Results

Future Opportunities and Challenges

Vietnam’s Aspirations for 2035



2 Enabling Economic Modernization and Private Sector Development

Main Messages

Vietnam’s Growth and Economic Modernization Record

Opportunities, Risks, and Challenges for Future Growth

Promoting Economic Modernization and Enhancing Competitiveness of the Private Sector

Annex 2A Empirical Relationship among Political Connection, Firms’ Access to Credit, and Profitability

Annex 2B Growth Accounting to Identify Sources of Growth



3 Building National Innovation Capacity

Main Messages

Innovation Capacity: Where Is Vietnam Today?

Innovation: The Demand (or Firm) Side

Innovation: The Supply Side

By Way of Conclusion: Moving Toward an Innovation-Led Economy



4 Managing Urbanization for Greater Economic Effi ciency

Main Messages

Urbanization and Economic Transformation in Vietnam

Vietnam’s Urbanization in 3D: Density, Distance, and Division

Causes of Low and Stagnant Density, Rising Distance, and Persistent Division

Institutions and Infrastructure: Cities to Lead Vietnam’s Transformation into a Modern Industrialized Nation

Annex 4A Haiphong City: The Challenges and Promises of a Gateway in Transition



5 Achieving Sustainable and Climate-Resilient Growth

Main Messages

Environmental Sustainability: A Key to Growth and Development

Environmental Challenges in Vietnam Today and in the Future

Underlying Causes and Priority Challenges

Growing Sustainably Toward 2035: The Road Forward



6 Promoting Equity and Social Inclusion

Main Messages

The Situation of Social Inclusion in Vietnam

The Unfi nished Agenda: Marginalized Groups and Equality of Opportunity

The Emerging Agenda: Middle-Class Inclusion in a Market Economy



7 Building Modern Institutions for an Eff ective State

Main Messages

The Role of Institutions

Diagnosing Vietnam’s Institutional Challenges

Toward Modern Institutions for an Effective State




The future of manufacturing: A new era of opportunity and challenge for the UK. Project Report | GOV.UK. Department for Business Innovation & Skills Government. Office for Science (@GOVUK)

Info: GOV UK

Document (pdf)


A New Vision for UK Manufacturing - Introduction, by Sir Mark Walport and Sir Richard Lapthorne

Preface, by the Rt. Hon. Vince Cable MP


Summary Report

1. Introduction

1.1 Aims of the Project

1.2 Why the Project was undertaken at this time

1.3 How the work has been structured

2 The past, the present, and a modern lens

2.1 A modern lens for manufacturing – reappraising its place in the economy

2.2 The value of manufacturing in the UK economy – past and present

3 Faster, more responsive and closer to customers

3.1 Technology and innovation

3.2 Factories of the future

3.3 Implications for Government

4 Exposed to new market opportunities

4.1 Global trade and investment

4.2 Spatial distribution, deindustrialisation and reindustrialisation

4.3 Implications for Government

5 More sustainable

5.1 Manufacturing and the natural environment

5.2 Implications for Government

6 Increasingly dependent on highly skilled workers

6.1 The role of people in manufacturing

6.2 Implications for Government

7 Systemic areas for future Government focus: prioritise and next steps

7.1 Taking a more integrated view of value creation in the manufacturing sector

7.2 Targeting specific stages of the manufacturing value chain

7.3 Enhancing Government capability in evaluating and coordinating policy over the long-term

7.4 Areas for further investigation

7.5 Next steps - who needs to do what


Annex A: Acknowledgements

Annex B: References and bibliography

Annex C: Glossary and acronyms

Annex D: Project reports and papers

«A New Vision for UK Manufacturing. Introduction

»Manufacturing in 2050 will look very different from today, and will be virtually unrecognisable from that of 30 years ago. Successful firms will be capable of rapidly adapting their physical and intellectual infrastructures to exploit changes in technology as manufacturing becomes faster, more responsive to changing global markets and closer to customers. Successful firms will also harness a wider skills base, with highly qualified leaders and managers whose expertise combines both commercial and technical acumen, typically in science, technology, engineering or mathematics.

»Constant adaptability will pervade all aspects of manufacturing, from research and development to innovation, production processes, supplier and customer interdependencies, and lifetime product maintenance and repair. Products and processes will be sustainable, with built-in reuse, remanufacturing and recycling for products reaching the end of their useful lives. Closed loop systems will be used to eliminate energy and water waste and to recycle physical waste.

»These developments will further emphasise the key role of physical production in unlocking innovative new revenue streams, particularly as firms embrace ‘servitisation’ and manufacturers make use of the increasing pervasiveness of ‘Big Data’ to enhance their competitiveness.

»In the public sector, policy frameworks that affect the manufacturing sector directly and indirectly will need to recognise the extended nature of value creation and the new ways it is being developed. Public planning cycles should match the timescales of firms’ own long term planning requirements. And it will be important that flows of highly skilled workers, patient capital, and support to promote critical mass in small and medium sized enterprises are all internationally competitive.

»The implications for UK manufacturing firms and the UK Government are substantial. Some businesses are already adapting and are world class, but many are not positioned to succeed in a future world where greater opportunities will be balanced by greater competition. The UK needs to radically change its approach to providing a constant and consistent framework within which all firms aspire to prosper.

»A business-as-usual approach will not deliver that outcome. Other economies are already ahead, and catching up will require an adaptive capacity that the UK has not yet demonstrated. Achieving this is essential, as the future competitiveness and health of UK manufacturing will affect many other parts of the economy through its numerous linkages.

»The key message is that there is no easy or immediate route to success, but action needs to start now to build on existing support, and to refocus and rebalance it for the future. Above all, policy design will need to address entire system effects. This Report sets out many areas where action is needed at both strategic and more detailed levels. However, the following should be particular priorities.

»The quality and skills of the workforce will be a critical factor in capturing competitive advantage. It is essential that UK policy makers focus on the supply of skilled workers, including apprenticeship schemes, support for researchers, and the supply of skilled managers. Firms will need to pay much more attention to building multidisciplinary teams to develop increasingly complex products, and also innovative business models.

»It will also be crucial to address the current image associated with manufacturing. Here government and industry should work together to further promote and market the opportunities for careers in manufacturing industries at all levels of education.

»Financial challenges for the sector include a shortage of risk capital. This is particularly evident as a funding gap between research and early development and the funding for proof of concept that is usually required before the market steps in. There is also a shortage of funding for applied research and development in some areas such as the development of advanced green energy sources.

»So although there are excellent schemes for public support such as Knowledge Transfer Partnerships, funding of the Technology Strategy Board, and public private partnerships such as the Energy Technologies Institute, these are much smaller than in competitor nations. Addressing this mismatch should be a priority.

»Recent years have seen a resurgence in the development of industrial policies by governments in the UK and overseas. In the UK, industrial policies have been developed in 11 sectors, led in most cases by groups from the public and private sectors, with many of these encompassing manufacturing industries.

»One specific development has been the creation of the Catapult Centres. In particular, the High Value Manufacturing Catapult provides a strong base on which to build substantial further effort. It is recommended that its funding is substantially increased, and used in part to encourage the greater involvement of smaller firms in particular.

»Whilst specific initiatives are essential in areas mentioned above, more is needed. Recognition that the UK’s national infrastructure suffered from fragmented policy making led to the creation of Infrastructure UK (IUK). Manufacturing suffers from similar challenges and is no less strategic for the future strength and resilience of the UK economy. The Lead Expert Group of this Foresight Project considers that a similar office to the IUK is needed for Manufacturing.

»This would be responsible for helping Government to formulate long-term policies that would take into account the extended value chain associated with manufacturing industries.

»It should be staffed by experts, preferably with substantial successful industry experience. They would consider all of the issues highlighted in this Report, and develop and assist Government with piloting new policies. A UK Office for Manufacturing would need to work closely with IUK, in view of the importance of infrastructure to manufacturing. It would also need to work closely with industry, particularly to improve skills and increase the ability of companies to innovate by working with relevant partners. Other countries including the United States and Australia have developed relevant offices from which the UK can learn.

»In summary, manufacturing is too important to leave to its own devices. The Lead Expert Group for this project, comprising Academic and Industry leaders commend this Report to Government, together with its associated analysis and evidence underpinning its conclusions.

»Sir Richard Lapthorne (Chair, Project Lead Expert Group) and Sir Mark Walport (Government Chief Scientific Adviser)»


Shaping an interconnected world. G20 Leaders’ Declaration | G20

Info: G20

Documento (pdf)


«We, the Leaders of the G20, met in Hamburg, Germany on 7-8 July 2017 to address major global economic challenges and to contribute to prosperity and well-being.

»Mastering the challenges of our age and shaping an interconnected world is the common goal of the G20 as our premier forum for international economic cooperation.

»The G20 revealed its strength during the global economic and financial crisis some ten years ago when it played a crucial role in stabilising economies and financial markets. What was true then continues to hold: We can achieve more together than by acting alone.

»Progressing our joint objective in the G20 – strong, sustainable, balanced and inclusive growth – remains our highest priority.

»Globalisation and technological change have contributed significantly to driving economic growth and raising living standards across the globe. However, globalisation has created challenges and its benefits have not been shared widely enough. By bringing together developed and emerging market economies, the G20 is determined to shape globalisation to benefit all people.

»Most importantly, we need to better enable our people to seize its opportunities.

»We are resolved to tackle common challenges to the global community, including terrorism, displacement, poverty, hunger and health threats, job creation, climate change, energy security, and inequality including gender inequality, as a basis for sustainable development and stability. We will continue to work together with others, including developing countries, to address these challenges, building on the rules- based international order.

»Expanding on the results of previous presidencies, in particular the 2016 G20 Summit in Hangzhou, we decide today to take concrete actions to advance the three aims of building resilience, improving sustainability and assuming responsibility.»


The Knowledge Future: Intelligent policy choices for Europe 2050 | European Commission (@EU_Commission)

Info: EU Commission

Report (pdf)

Table of Contents


Summary and Policy recommendations

Policy Recommendations


1. Transforming knowledge

2. Megatrends 2050

3. A European success

4. Europe misses out

5. Making the right choices

In conclusion


Foresight is an important tool to help us face the future with confidence, understand opportunities and risks, and help us develop our medium to long term strategies for research, science and innovation policy. It takes many guises: trends, signals, scenarios, visions, roadmaps and plans are all parts of the tool-box for looking to the future. In addition to these tools, using foresight requires an in-depth reflection on the policy implications and related scenarios.

This report ‘The Knowledge Future: intelligent policy choices for Europe 2050’ is an excellent example of such a reflection. Europe’s research, innovation and higher education systems are the foundation of our economic and social prospects, shaping our ability to tackle numerous challenges at both local and international level.

Globalisation, demographic changes and technological advances pose important challenges and opportunities for research and innovation in Europe. By reflecting on the trends and articulating scenarios, this report helps us think differently about European policies in the medium to long term.

In Europe we need to:

• Create the necessary conditions to capitalise on the results of research and innovation;

• Boost excellence in cutting-edge, fundamental research;

• Reinforce our international engagement through science diplomacy.

On this basis, I have set my priorities to be Open Innovation, Open Science, and Open to the World.

I hope that this report will contribute to discussions on how research and innovation can contribute to a stronger economy and a better society for all.

Carlos Moedas
Commissioner for Research Science and Innovation European Commission