Flightpath 2050 Europe’s Vision for Aviation | European Commission. Directorate-General for Research and Innovation. High Level Group (HLG) on Aviation and Aeronautics Research

Info: EU High Level Group (HLG) on Aviation and Aeronautics Research

Document (pdf)

Table of contents

Aviation – an invaluable asset for Europe

The European Aviation Vision 2050

Highly ambitious goals

European air transport in 2050

Meeting societal & market needs

Maintaining and extending industrial leadership

Protecting the environment and the energy supply

Ensuring safety and security

Prioritising research, testing capabilities & education

Achieving the Vision

A research and innovation friendly environment for Europe

From Vision to the Research Agenda


»Europe is entering a new age where it faces many challenges such as globalisation, a financial system in need of reform, climate change and an increasing scarcity of resources.

»This is why the European air transport system is directly concerned by new challenges regarding its competitiveness, performance and sustainability. The European manufacturing and service industry is strongly affected by globalisation, new competitors, new markets and the need for innovation. Sustainable mobility is at stake, as are millions of jobs and billions of Euros of added value. Research and innovation are key to maintaining Europe’s capacities and competitiveness and it is time to align efforts towards a new long-term vision for this sector.

»We invited key stakeholders of European aviation from the aeronautics industry, air traffic management, airports, airlines, energy providers and the research community to come together in a High Level Group to develop a vision for Europe’s aviation system and industry by 2050. The aviation community responded enthusiastically and produced this important document which focuses on two main challenges: meeting the needs of our citizens and the market as well as maintaining global leadership.

»The strategy addresses customer orientation and market needs as well as industrial competitiveness and the need to maintain an adequate skills and research infrastructure base in Europe. By 2050, passengers and freight should enjoy efficient and seamless travel services, based on a resilient air transport system thoroughly integrated with other transport modes and well connected to the rest of the world. This will be necessary in order to meet the growing demand for travel and to cope more easily with unforeseeable events.

»It should also help to reduce aviation’s impact on citizens and the environment. Aviation has an important role to play in reducing noise as well as greenhouse gas emissions, regardless of traffic growth. Aviation must move towards more sustainable energy sources. It should live up to the highest levels of safety and security to ensure that passengers and freight as well as the air transport system and its infrastructure are protected.

»The vision set out in this document stresses the need for an innovation friendly environment relying on strong, sustainable and coherent investment in research and innovation and enhanced governance, funding and financing structures.

»Research, technology and innovation are essential catalysts for a competitive and sustainable future and we need to start quickly to be effective. This document setting out a European vision for the future of aviation emphasises where those working in aviation see the priorities for the relevant policy, research and innovation instruments. It is a high-level vision of Europe leading with an aviation industry that is clean, competitive, safe and secure.

»Siim Kallas, Vice-President of the European Commission and Commissioner for Transport, and Máire Geoghegan-Quinn, Commissioner for Research, Innovation and Science»


The future of food and agriculture. Trends and challenges | Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) of the United Nations (UN) (@FAOnews)

Info: FAO

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Executive summary


1 Population growth, urbanization and ageing

2 Global economic growth, investment, trade and food prices

3 Competition for natural resources

4 Climate change

5 Agricultural productivity and innovation

6 Transboundary pests and diseases

7 Conflicts, crises and natural disasters

8 Poverty, inequality and food insecurity

9 Nutrition and health

10 Structural change and employment

11 Migration and agriculture

12 Changing food systems

13 Food losses and waste

14 Governance for food and nutrition security

15 Development finance


1 Sustainably improving agricultural productivity to meet increasing demand

2 Ensuring a sustainable natural resource base

3 Addressing climate change and intensification of natural hazards

4 Eradicating extreme poverty and reducing inequality

5 Ending hunger and all forms of malnutrition

6 Making food systems more efficient, inclusive and resilient

7 Improving income earning opportunities in rural areas and addressing the root causes of migration

8 Building resilience to protracted crises, disasters and conflicts

9 Preventing transboundary and emerging agriculture and food system threats

10 Addressing the need for coherent and effective national and international governance

ANNEX - International frameworks of relevance to FAO’s work and mandates


«Executive summary


»A number of global trends are influencing food security, poverty and the overall sustainability of food and agricultural systems.

»The world’s population is expected to grow to almost 10 billion by 2050, boosting agricultural demand – in a scenario of modest economic growth – by some 50 percent compared to 2013. Income growth in low- and middle-income countries would hasten a dietary transition towards higher consumption of meat, fruits and vegetables, relative to that of cereals, requiring commensurate shifts in output and adding pressure on natural resources.

»Economic growth and population dynamics are driving the structural change of economies.

»The decline in the share of agriculture in total production and employment is taking place at different speeds and poses different challenges across regions. Although agricultural investments and technological innovations are boosting productivity, growth of yields has slowed to rates that are too low for comfort. Food losses and waste claim a significant proportion of agricultural output, and reducing them would lessen the need for production increases. However, the needed acceleration in productivity growth is hampered by the degradation of natural resources, the loss of biodiversity, and the spread of transboundary pests and diseases of plants and animals, some of which are becoming resistant to antimicrobials.

»Climate change affects disproportionately food-insecure regions, jeopardizing crop and livestock production, fish stocks and fisheries.

»Satisfying increased demands on agriculture with existing farming practices is likely to lead to more intense competition for natural resources, increased greenhouse gas emissions, and further deforestation and land degradation.

»Hunger and extreme poverty have been reduced globally since the 1990s.

»Yet, around 700 million people, most of them living in rural areas, are still extremely poor today. In addition, despite undeniable progress in reducing rates of undernourishment and improving levels of nutrition and health, almost 800 million people are chronically hungry and 2 billion suffer micronutrient deficiencies. Under a ‘business-as-usual’ scenario, without additional efforts to promote pro-poor development, some 653 million people would still be undernourished in 2030. Even where poverty has been reduced, pervasive inequalities remain, hindering poverty eradication.

»Critical parts of food systems are becoming more capital-intensive, vertically integrated and concentrated in fewer hands.

»This is happening from input provisioning to food distribution. Smallscale producers and landless households are the first to lose out and increasingly seek employment opportunities outside of agriculture. This is driving increased migratory flows, especially of male members of rural households, which is leading, in turn, to the ‘feminization’ of farming in many parts of the world.

»Conflicts, crises and natural disasters are increasing in number and intensity.

»They reduce food availability, disrupt access to food and health care, and undermine social protection systems, pushing many affected people back into poverty and hunger, fuelling distress migration and increasing the need for humanitarian aid. Violent conflict also frequently characterizes protracted crises. On average, the proportion of undernourished people living in low-income countries with a protracted crisis is between 2.5 and 3 times higher than in other low-income countries.


»These trends pose a series of challenges to food and agriculture.

»High-input, resource-intensive farming systems, which have caused massive deforestation, water scarcities, soil depletion and high levels of greenhouse gas emissions, cannot deliver sustainable food and agricultural production. Needed are innovative systems that protect and enhance the natural resource base, while increasing productivity. Needed is a transformative process towards ‘holistic’ approaches, such as agroecology, agro-forestry, climate-smart agriculture and conservation agriculture, which also build upon indigenous and traditional knowledge. Technological improvements, along with drastic cuts in economy-wide and agricultural fossil fuel use, would help address climate change and the intensification of natural hazards, which affect all ecosystems and every aspect of human life. Greater international collaboration is needed to prevent emerging transboundary agriculture and food system threats, such as pests and diseases.

»Eradicating extreme poverty, and ensuring that vulnerable people who escape poverty do not fall back into it, requires action to reduce inequalities.

»That means addressing inequalities both between and within countries, in levels of income, in opportunities and in ownership of assets, including land. Pro-poor growth strategies, which ensure that the weakest participate in the benefits of market integration and investment in agriculture, would improve their income and investment opportunities in rural areas and address the root causes of migration.

»But pro-poor growth must go beyond agriculture, by involving both rural and urban areas and supporting job creation and income diversification.

»Social protection combined with pro-poor growth will help meet the challenge of ending hunger and addressing the triple burden of malnutrition through healthier diets. Permanently eliminating hunger, malnutrition and extreme poverty also requires building resilience to protracted crises, disasters and conflicts, and preventing conflicts by promoting inclusive and equitable global development.

»A rethinking of food systems and governance is essential for meeting current and future challenges.

»Vertically coordinated, more organized food systems offer standardized food for urban areas and formal employment opportunities. But they need to be accompanied by responsible investments and concern for smallholder livelihoods, the environmental footprint of lengthening food supply chains, and impacts on biodiversity. These concerns need to be addressed by making food systems more efficient, inclusive and resilient.

»On the path to sustainable development, all countries are interdependent.

»One of the greatest challenges is achieving coherent, effective national and international governance, with clear development objectives and commitment to achieving them. The 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development embodies such a vision – one that goes beyond the divide of ‘developed’ and ‘developing’ countries. Sustainable development is a universal challenge and the collective responsibility for all countries, requiring fundamental changes in the way all societies produce and consume.»


Vietnam 2035. Toward Prosperity, Creativity, Equity, and Democracy | World Bank (@WorldBank) and Ministry of Planning and Investment of Vietnam (#mpi.gov.vn)

Info: The World Bank

Document (pdf)



Preface and Acknowledgments

Executive Summary


Part I Overview

Vietnam 2035: Toward Prosperity, Creativity, Equity, and Democracy


Pillar 1 Economic Prosperity with Environmental Sustainability

Pillar 2 Equity and Social Inclusion

Pillar 3 A Capable and Accountable State

Summary and Conclusions

Part II Background Chapters

1 Thirty Years of Renovation and Vietnam’s Aspirations for 2035

Main Messages

Ðổi Mới: Motivation, Process, and Results

Future Opportunities and Challenges

Vietnam’s Aspirations for 2035



2 Enabling Economic Modernization and Private Sector Development

Main Messages

Vietnam’s Growth and Economic Modernization Record

Opportunities, Risks, and Challenges for Future Growth

Promoting Economic Modernization and Enhancing Competitiveness of the Private Sector

Annex 2A Empirical Relationship among Political Connection, Firms’ Access to Credit, and Profitability

Annex 2B Growth Accounting to Identify Sources of Growth



3 Building National Innovation Capacity

Main Messages

Innovation Capacity: Where Is Vietnam Today?

Innovation: The Demand (or Firm) Side

Innovation: The Supply Side

By Way of Conclusion: Moving Toward an Innovation-Led Economy



4 Managing Urbanization for Greater Economic Effi ciency

Main Messages

Urbanization and Economic Transformation in Vietnam

Vietnam’s Urbanization in 3D: Density, Distance, and Division

Causes of Low and Stagnant Density, Rising Distance, and Persistent Division

Institutions and Infrastructure: Cities to Lead Vietnam’s Transformation into a Modern Industrialized Nation

Annex 4A Haiphong City: The Challenges and Promises of a Gateway in Transition



5 Achieving Sustainable and Climate-Resilient Growth

Main Messages

Environmental Sustainability: A Key to Growth and Development

Environmental Challenges in Vietnam Today and in the Future

Underlying Causes and Priority Challenges

Growing Sustainably Toward 2035: The Road Forward



6 Promoting Equity and Social Inclusion

Main Messages

The Situation of Social Inclusion in Vietnam

The Unfi nished Agenda: Marginalized Groups and Equality of Opportunity

The Emerging Agenda: Middle-Class Inclusion in a Market Economy



7 Building Modern Institutions for an Eff ective State

Main Messages

The Role of Institutions

Diagnosing Vietnam’s Institutional Challenges

Toward Modern Institutions for an Effective State




The future of manufacturing: A new era of opportunity and challenge for the UK. Project Report | GOV.UK. Department for Business Innovation & Skills Government. Office for Science (@GOVUK)

Info: GOV UK

Document (pdf)


A New Vision for UK Manufacturing - Introduction, by Sir Mark Walport and Sir Richard Lapthorne

Preface, by the Rt. Hon. Vince Cable MP


Summary Report

1. Introduction

1.1 Aims of the Project

1.2 Why the Project was undertaken at this time

1.3 How the work has been structured

2 The past, the present, and a modern lens

2.1 A modern lens for manufacturing – reappraising its place in the economy

2.2 The value of manufacturing in the UK economy – past and present

3 Faster, more responsive and closer to customers

3.1 Technology and innovation

3.2 Factories of the future

3.3 Implications for Government

4 Exposed to new market opportunities

4.1 Global trade and investment

4.2 Spatial distribution, deindustrialisation and reindustrialisation

4.3 Implications for Government

5 More sustainable

5.1 Manufacturing and the natural environment

5.2 Implications for Government

6 Increasingly dependent on highly skilled workers

6.1 The role of people in manufacturing

6.2 Implications for Government

7 Systemic areas for future Government focus: prioritise and next steps

7.1 Taking a more integrated view of value creation in the manufacturing sector

7.2 Targeting specific stages of the manufacturing value chain

7.3 Enhancing Government capability in evaluating and coordinating policy over the long-term

7.4 Areas for further investigation

7.5 Next steps - who needs to do what


Annex A: Acknowledgements

Annex B: References and bibliography

Annex C: Glossary and acronyms

Annex D: Project reports and papers

«A New Vision for UK Manufacturing. Introduction

»Manufacturing in 2050 will look very different from today, and will be virtually unrecognisable from that of 30 years ago. Successful firms will be capable of rapidly adapting their physical and intellectual infrastructures to exploit changes in technology as manufacturing becomes faster, more responsive to changing global markets and closer to customers. Successful firms will also harness a wider skills base, with highly qualified leaders and managers whose expertise combines both commercial and technical acumen, typically in science, technology, engineering or mathematics.

»Constant adaptability will pervade all aspects of manufacturing, from research and development to innovation, production processes, supplier and customer interdependencies, and lifetime product maintenance and repair. Products and processes will be sustainable, with built-in reuse, remanufacturing and recycling for products reaching the end of their useful lives. Closed loop systems will be used to eliminate energy and water waste and to recycle physical waste.

»These developments will further emphasise the key role of physical production in unlocking innovative new revenue streams, particularly as firms embrace ‘servitisation’ and manufacturers make use of the increasing pervasiveness of ‘Big Data’ to enhance their competitiveness.

»In the public sector, policy frameworks that affect the manufacturing sector directly and indirectly will need to recognise the extended nature of value creation and the new ways it is being developed. Public planning cycles should match the timescales of firms’ own long term planning requirements. And it will be important that flows of highly skilled workers, patient capital, and support to promote critical mass in small and medium sized enterprises are all internationally competitive.

»The implications for UK manufacturing firms and the UK Government are substantial. Some businesses are already adapting and are world class, but many are not positioned to succeed in a future world where greater opportunities will be balanced by greater competition. The UK needs to radically change its approach to providing a constant and consistent framework within which all firms aspire to prosper.

»A business-as-usual approach will not deliver that outcome. Other economies are already ahead, and catching up will require an adaptive capacity that the UK has not yet demonstrated. Achieving this is essential, as the future competitiveness and health of UK manufacturing will affect many other parts of the economy through its numerous linkages.

»The key message is that there is no easy or immediate route to success, but action needs to start now to build on existing support, and to refocus and rebalance it for the future. Above all, policy design will need to address entire system effects. This Report sets out many areas where action is needed at both strategic and more detailed levels. However, the following should be particular priorities.

»The quality and skills of the workforce will be a critical factor in capturing competitive advantage. It is essential that UK policy makers focus on the supply of skilled workers, including apprenticeship schemes, support for researchers, and the supply of skilled managers. Firms will need to pay much more attention to building multidisciplinary teams to develop increasingly complex products, and also innovative business models.

»It will also be crucial to address the current image associated with manufacturing. Here government and industry should work together to further promote and market the opportunities for careers in manufacturing industries at all levels of education.

»Financial challenges for the sector include a shortage of risk capital. This is particularly evident as a funding gap between research and early development and the funding for proof of concept that is usually required before the market steps in. There is also a shortage of funding for applied research and development in some areas such as the development of advanced green energy sources.

»So although there are excellent schemes for public support such as Knowledge Transfer Partnerships, funding of the Technology Strategy Board, and public private partnerships such as the Energy Technologies Institute, these are much smaller than in competitor nations. Addressing this mismatch should be a priority.

»Recent years have seen a resurgence in the development of industrial policies by governments in the UK and overseas. In the UK, industrial policies have been developed in 11 sectors, led in most cases by groups from the public and private sectors, with many of these encompassing manufacturing industries.

»One specific development has been the creation of the Catapult Centres. In particular, the High Value Manufacturing Catapult provides a strong base on which to build substantial further effort. It is recommended that its funding is substantially increased, and used in part to encourage the greater involvement of smaller firms in particular.

»Whilst specific initiatives are essential in areas mentioned above, more is needed. Recognition that the UK’s national infrastructure suffered from fragmented policy making led to the creation of Infrastructure UK (IUK). Manufacturing suffers from similar challenges and is no less strategic for the future strength and resilience of the UK economy. The Lead Expert Group of this Foresight Project considers that a similar office to the IUK is needed for Manufacturing.

»This would be responsible for helping Government to formulate long-term policies that would take into account the extended value chain associated with manufacturing industries.

»It should be staffed by experts, preferably with substantial successful industry experience. They would consider all of the issues highlighted in this Report, and develop and assist Government with piloting new policies. A UK Office for Manufacturing would need to work closely with IUK, in view of the importance of infrastructure to manufacturing. It would also need to work closely with industry, particularly to improve skills and increase the ability of companies to innovate by working with relevant partners. Other countries including the United States and Australia have developed relevant offices from which the UK can learn.

»In summary, manufacturing is too important to leave to its own devices. The Lead Expert Group for this project, comprising Academic and Industry leaders commend this Report to Government, together with its associated analysis and evidence underpinning its conclusions.

»Sir Richard Lapthorne (Chair, Project Lead Expert Group) and Sir Mark Walport (Government Chief Scientific Adviser)»


Shaping an interconnected world. G20 Leaders’ Declaration | G20

Info: G20

Documento (pdf)


«We, the Leaders of the G20, met in Hamburg, Germany on 7-8 July 2017 to address major global economic challenges and to contribute to prosperity and well-being.

»Mastering the challenges of our age and shaping an interconnected world is the common goal of the G20 as our premier forum for international economic cooperation.

»The G20 revealed its strength during the global economic and financial crisis some ten years ago when it played a crucial role in stabilising economies and financial markets. What was true then continues to hold: We can achieve more together than by acting alone.

»Progressing our joint objective in the G20 – strong, sustainable, balanced and inclusive growth – remains our highest priority.

»Globalisation and technological change have contributed significantly to driving economic growth and raising living standards across the globe. However, globalisation has created challenges and its benefits have not been shared widely enough. By bringing together developed and emerging market economies, the G20 is determined to shape globalisation to benefit all people.

»Most importantly, we need to better enable our people to seize its opportunities.

»We are resolved to tackle common challenges to the global community, including terrorism, displacement, poverty, hunger and health threats, job creation, climate change, energy security, and inequality including gender inequality, as a basis for sustainable development and stability. We will continue to work together with others, including developing countries, to address these challenges, building on the rules- based international order.

»Expanding on the results of previous presidencies, in particular the 2016 G20 Summit in Hangzhou, we decide today to take concrete actions to advance the three aims of building resilience, improving sustainability and assuming responsibility.»